Chapter 3 Notes for Chemistry.docx - Chapter 3 Composition...

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Chapter 3: Composition of Substances and Solutions i. Introduction Swimming Pools have long been a popular means of recreation, exercise, and physical therapy. Calcium ion should be maintained to prevent eye irritation and avoid damage to the pool bed and plumbing. ii. 3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept Understanding the relationship between the masses of atoms and the chemical formulas of compounds allows us to quantatively describe the composition of substances. A. Formula Mass Summing the average atomic masses of all the atoms represented in the substance’s formula. 1) Formula Mass for Covalent Substances Represents the numbers and types of atoms composing a single molecule of the substance. Referred to as the molecular mass. 2) Formula Mass for Ionic Compounds Composed of discrete cations and anions combined in ratios to yield electrically neutral bulk matter. Formula: summing average atomic masses of all the atoms in the compounds formula. B. The Mole The identity of a substance is defined by the quantity of each type of atom or ion. The mole provides a specific measure of the number of atoms or molecules in a bulk sample of matter. Mole= the amount of substance containing the same number of discrete entities as the number of atoms in a sample of pure ^12C weighing exactly 12 g. Avogadro’s number= 6.022 x 10^23 Molar Mass of an element (or compound) is the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance. The molar mass of any substance is numerically equivalent to its atomic or formula weight in amu.
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