Lecture 2 Psychology as a Science.docx

Lecture 2 Psychology as a Science.docx - Lecture 2...

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Lecture 2: Psychology as a Science Errors in Thinking Hindsight Bias- after s/t happens you look at it in hindsight and thinking you knew it all along, can think of all the reason it would happen, I knew it all along, I knew it would happen Over-confidence- Just bc we are familiar w/ s/t doesn’t mean we truly understand it, we over estimate how much we really know, Over-estimate how fast they can run, type, know about s/t, Our level of confidence is usually much higher than our level of accuracy Coincidence Error- Human tendency to misinterpret random events, misinterpret true meaning of s/t by attributing more meaning to s/t than it actually represents, Get 4 heads in a row, think next one will be tails, but actually next one is completely independent, we naturally want to perceive there is some sort of significance in a random sequence The Scientific Attitude Curiosity- always asking new questions, ask why about a behavior, is it common to all people or only under certain circumstances (stress), only true for certain part of population, always asking more questions to delve deeper into why s/o behaving that way Skepticism- not accepting a “fact” as true without challenging it, even after conducting experiment, true scientist will always show some sort of skepticism, is there another reason this could have happened, could there have been a flaw in the way I measured, ect, do I need to change my theory to fit the evidence? Humility- Seeking the truth rather than trying to be right, Safeguards against confirmation bias (just look for evidence to support your theory) and belief perseverance (even after you get other evidence you still want to hang on to what you believe), have a medial symptom so you start googling, finding things that match your theory, ignore things that don’t quite fit into your theory, come up with an explanation of why roommate is being weird, you find things that support your explanation, putting more weight on those things that confirm your belief; autism caused by vaccines (belief perserverance) Critical thinking Analyzing info, arguments, conclusions, and as is it really valid, decide whether it makes sense to accept these conclusions or is there another possibility Look for hidden assumptions and decide if you agree
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