Substance - Substance Particulars Particulars: cant have...

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Unformatted text preview: Substance Particulars Particulars: cant have multiple instances Dan Bonevac, Gavrilo Princip Empire State Building, Perry-Castaeda Library, that beach ball, this grain of sand Austin, Texas, Sarajevo November 11, 1918 The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand Universals Universals: can have multiple instances Properties: red, triangular, large Relations: between, on, love, friendship Kinds: tiger, building, pencil, shortstop Books: the Bible; Worldly Wisdom Musical works: Luckenbach, Texas ; Bachs Toccata and Fugue in D Minor Are Universals Real? Realism: yes, and mind-independent Conceptualism: yes, but mind-dependent Nominalism: no everything is particular Mind-dependent Mind-independent Real Conceptualism Realism Unreal Nominalism Why think forms exist at all? Necessary for knowledge Without forms, we could Perceive Generalize But we couldnt Understand why things happen Know any universal or necessary generalizations, as in science, mathematics, or philosophy There must be something all Fs have in common, by virtue of which they are Fs Platos enemies: Parmenides Parmenides holds that change is impossible Say that a thing changes: a is F at time t , but not F at t But then a is both F and not F Thats a contradiction So, nothing changes Platos enemies: Heraclitus That doesnt show that change is impossible It just shows that objects dont persist through change There are changes: one object succeeds another You cant step into the same river twice. Platos enemies: Sophists Platos enemies: Skeptics Forms explain how we can Think general thoughts Account for regularities Account for change Think the same thought at different times Think the same thought as each other Think veridical thoughts Platos Divided Line You have to imagine, then, that there are two ruling powers, and that one of them is set over the intellectual world, the other over the visible. . . . Now take a line which has been cut into two unequal parts, and divide each of them again in the same proportion, and suppose the two main divisions to answer, one to the visible and the other to the intelligible, and then compare the subdivisions in respect of their clearness and want of clearness, and you will find that the first section in the sphere of the visible consists of images. And by images I mean, in the first place, shadows, and in the second place, reflections in water and in solid, smooth and polished bodies and the like. . . ....
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Substance - Substance Particulars Particulars: cant have...

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