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Substance - Substance Particulars Particulars can't have...

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    Substance  
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    Particulars Particulars: can’t have multiple instances Dan Bonevac, Gavrilo Princip Empire State Building, Perry-Castañeda Library, that beach ball, this grain of sand Austin, Texas, Sarajevo November 11, 1918 The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
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    Universals Universals: can have multiple  instances Properties: red, triangular, large Relations: between, on, love, friendship Kinds: tiger, building, pencil, shortstop Books: the Bible;  Worldly Wisdom Musical works:  Luckenbach, Texas Bach’s  Toccata and Fugue in D Minor
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    Are Universals Real? Realism: yes, and mind-independent Conceptualism: yes, but mind-dependent Nominalism: no— everything is particular   Mind-dependent Mind-independent Real Conceptualism Realism Unreal Nominalism
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    Why think forms exist at all? Necessary for knowledge Without forms, we could  Perceive Generalize But we couldn’t Understand why things happen Know any universal or necessary generalizations, as in  science, mathematics, or philosophy There must be something all  Fs  have in common, by  virtue of which they are  Fs
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    Plato’s enemies: Parmenides Parmenides holds that change is  impossible Say that a thing changes: a  is  F  at time  t , but not  F  at  t’ But then  a  is both  F  and not  F That’s a contradiction So, nothing changes
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    Plato’s enemies: Heraclitus That doesn’t show that change is  impossible It just shows that objects don’t  persist through change There are changes: one object  succeeds another “You can’t step into the same river  twice.”
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    Plato’s enemies: Sophists
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    Plato’s enemies: Skeptics
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    Forms explain how we can Think general thoughts Account for regularities Account for change Think the same thought at  different times Think the same thought as  each other Think veridical thoughts
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    Plato’s Divided Line “You have to imagine, then, that there are two ruling powers,  and that one of them is set over the intellectual world, the other  over the visible. . . . Now take a line which has been cut into  two unequal parts, and divide each of them again in the same  proportion, and suppose the two main divisions to answer, one  to the visible and the other to the intelligible, and then compare  the subdivisions in respect of their clearness and want of  clearness, and you will find that the first section in the sphere of  the visible consists of images. And by images I mean, in the  first place, shadows, and in the second place, reflections in  water and in solid, smooth and polished bodies and the  like. . . .”
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