ASTR Final Study guide.docx - ASTR 1101 Final Exam Study...

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ASTR 1101Final Exam Study Guide---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Identify your local cosmic addressUnderstand the physical nature of each component of the cosmic addressFor example: The Laniakea supercluster is a vast collection of galactic clusters, witheach cluster containing hundreds of galaxies.EarthSolar SystemMilky Way GalaxyLocal GroupLaniakeaSuperclusterPlanet8 PlanetsBillions of StarsDozens of GalaxiesThousands ofGalaxies---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Understand the various steps of the scientific methodObservationHypothesisPredictionExperimentAnalyze DataUnderstand what criteria are used to create and reject scientific theoriesBased on success rate of predictionsBe able to know the cosmological principleThe assumption that the physical laws that apply here and now also apply everywhereand at all timesKnow how patterns are used by astronomers to understand the physical world aroundusPatterns are useful because they allow us to predict what’s coming next and betterunderstand why that pattern is happening---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Understand the Celestial SphereBe able to identify on the Celestial Sphere the North Celestial Pole, the SouthCelestial Pole, the Celestial Equator, and the EclipticCelestial Sphere- animaginary sphere with celestial objects on its inner surface andEarth at its centerNorth Celestial Pole- the northward projection of Earth’s rotation axis onto thecelestial sphereSouth Celestial Pole-the southward projection of Earth’s rotation axis onto thecelestial sphereCelestial Equator- an imaginary circle that divides the sky into a northern half and asouthern halfEcliptic- the path of the Sun in the sky throughout the yearUnderstand how the view of the night sky changes depending on the observer’s latitudeAs you move away from the North Pole, your zenith moves away from the northcelestial pole causing your horizon to move, maintaining the sky’s shapeKnow the term circumpolarThe part of the sky that can always be seen above the horizon if viewed from neareither celestial pole
Know the term constellationThe apparent grouping of stars. There are88 constellations.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Understand how the view of the night sky changes depending on the time of yearThe stars move counterclockwise throughout the night sky over the course of a yearUnderstand what causes the seasons particularly in terms of solar irradiationIn the summer, the hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun gaining greater solar energyIn the winter, the hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun gaining lesser solar energyKnow the terms Spring Equinox, Summer Solstice, Vernal Equinox, and Winter Solsticeand the times of year corresponding to eachEquinox – Day and night are equal lengths – March & SeptemberSolstice – Day/Night is the longest day/night of the year – June & DecemberUnderstand the process of precession and what it means to our view of the night skyProcession – The change of positions of the equinox due to the wobble of Earth’s axis

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Term
Spring
Professor
campbell

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