# Formulae 2112 Exam 4 Fall17.pdf - Formula Sheet for LSU...

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Formula Sheet for LSU Physics 2112, EXAM 4, Fall 2017Constants:0= 8.85×10-11C2/Nm214π0= 8.99×109Nm2/C2μ04π= 10-7Tm/Aμ0= 1.26×10-6Tm/Ae= 1.602×10-19Cc= 3.0×108m/sElectromagnetic Waves:Plane waves propagating in the±x-direction:~E~BE=Emcos (kxωt)B=Bmcos (kxωt)Em=cBmk=2πλλ=cf=2πcωPoynting Vector, Intensity, Energy Flux:~S=1μ0~E×~BI=Savg=120E2m=10E2rmsErms=Em2I=P4πr2Law of Reflection:θr=θiSnell’s Law of Refraction:n1sinθ1=n2sinθ2Total Internal reflection:θc= sin-1n2n1Mirror/Thin Lens:1p+1i=1ff=r2,Lens maker’s equation:1f= (n-1)1r1-1r2!Concave mirror:f >0,Convex mirror:f <0;Converging lens:f >0,Diverging lens:f <0,Magnification:m=-ip,ifm >0, the image is upright, ifm <0, inverted.Interference:Constructive: phase difference,Δφ= 2πm;path-length diff.,ΔL=,(m= 0,1,2,· · ·)Destructive: phase difference,Δφ= (2m+ 1)π;path-length diff.,ΔL= (2m+ 1)λ2,(m= 0,1,2,· · ·)Index of Refraction:n=cv,λn=λn,v: speed of light in a mediumfn=c/nλ/n=fPhase change due to distance,L, traveled:Δφ=2πλnL=2πnλLPhase difference when traveling through different media with same length:
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