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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRYFACULTY OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICSUNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRISLABORATORY REPORTSKT 1013: INTRODUCTION TO INORGANIC CHEMISTRYSemester 2 Sessions 2017/2018ID NUMBER AND NAME1. SYAHRIZAT BINTI ZAINAL(E20161014047)2. DAYANG NOORAMINAH BINTIABD RAHMAN(E20161014045)GROUPCLECTURERPROF. DR. MUSTAFFA BIN AHMADEXPERIMENT NO.2TITLEA STUDY OF COPPER(II) COMPLEXESWITH DIFFERENT LIGANDSDATE15 NOV 2017
INTRODUCTIONA complex ion has a metal ion at its center with a number of other molecules or ionssurrounding it. These can be considered to be attached to the central ion by co-ordinate as adative covalent bonds. In some cases, the bonding is actually more complicated than that.Ligands can be anions, cations or neutral molecules. Ligands can be further characterized asmonodentate, bidentate and tridentate. A monodentate ligand has only one donor atom used tobond to the central metal atom or ion. There are many types of ligands which is monodenate ligand, bidentate ligand andpolydentate ligands. The term "monodentate" can be translated as "one tooth," whichreferring to the ligand binding to the center through only one atom. Some examples ofmonodentate ligands are chloride ions, referred to as chloro when it is a ligand, water,referred to as aqua when it is a ligand, hydroxide ions, referred to as hydroxo when it is aligand and ammonia, referred to as ammine when it is a ligand. Bidentate ligands have two donor atoms which allow them to bind to a central metalatom or ion at two points. Common examples of bidentate ligands are ethylenediamine andthe oxalate ion. Polydentate ligands range in the number of atoms used to bond to a centralmetal atom or ion. EDTA, a hexadentate ligand, is an example of a polydentate ligand thathas six donor atoms with electron pairs that can be used to bond to a central metal atom orion. A metal ion in solution does not exist in isolation but in combination with ligands such assolvent molecules or simple ions or chelating groups, giving rise to complex ions orcoordination compounds. These complexes contain a central atom or ion, often a transitionmetal and a cluster of ions or neutral molecules surrounding it. Ligands are ions or neutral