9.pdf - IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID VOL 6 NO 1 JANUARY 2015 45 Coordinated Energy Management of Networked Microgrids in Distribution Systems Zhaoyu

9.pdf - IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID VOL 6 NO 1 JANUARY...

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 6, NO. 1, JANUARY 2015 45 Coordinated Energy Management of Networked Microgrids in Distribution Systems Zhaoyu Wang, Student Member, IEEE , Bokan Chen, Jianhui Wang, Senior Member, IEEE , Miroslav M. Begovic, Fellow, IEEE , and Chen Chen, Member, IEEE Abstract —This paper proposes a novel control strategy for coordinated operation of networked microgrids (MGs) in a dis- tribution system. The distribution network operator (DNO) and each MG are considered as distinct entities with individual objec- tives to minimize the operation costs. It is assumed that both the dispatchable and nondispatchable distributed generators (DGs) exist in the networked MGs. In order to achieve the equilibrium among all entities and take into account the uncertainties of DG outputs, we formulate the problem as a stochastic bi-level prob- lem with the DNO in the upper level and MGs in the lower level. Each level consists of two stages. The first stage is to determine base generation setpoints based on the load and nondispatch- able DG output forecasts and the second stage is to adjust the generation outputs based on the realized scenarios. A scenario reduction method is applied to enhance a tradeoff between the accuracy of the solution and the computational burden. Case studies of a distribution system with multiple MGs of different types demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The centralized control, deterministic formulation, and stochastic formulation are also compared. Index Terms —Distributed generator (DG), distribution net- work, mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC), Microgrid (MG). N OMENCLATURE Sets S Set of scenarios. G Set of types of renewable energy source (RES)- based DGs (wind and solar in this paper) G = { WT , PV } . D / M Set of nodes in DNOs/MGs. Parameters m 1 Point of common coupling (PCC) of m th MG. r i Line resistance between nodes i and i + 1. Manuscript received December 9, 2013; revised May 7, 2014; accepted May 12, 2014. Date of publication August 7, 2014; date of current version December 17, 2014. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. Paper no. TSG-00905-2013. Z. Wang and M. Begovic are with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA (e-mail: [email protected] ; [email protected] ). B. Chen is with the School of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50014 USA (e-mail: [email protected] ). J. Wang and C. Chen are with Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 USA (e-mail: [email protected] ; [email protected] ). Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at . ieee . org . Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TSG.2014.2329846 x i Line reactance between nodes i and i + 1.
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