HA236CulinaryTheoryandPractice - HA 236 Prelim 1 this has...

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HA 236 Prelim 1 this has everything except has some extra diseases we just need to know botulimum, areus, cereus,salminella, and hepatidis a F O O D E V A L U A T I O N Organoleptics - sensory evaluation Hedonistically - subjectively; for pleasure Non-hedonistically - objectively Components of Food Evaluation Appearance Color - points to anticipation of flavor (ripeness of fruit, strength of coffee/tea) Brightness and reflectivity of light Sheen (or dullness) Visual texture o Shape - age and handling (fruits, vegetables, cheese cuts) o Sizes and portions Aroma Olfactory cells; connected to a part of the brain o Fundamentally volatile substance + concentration + molecular “fit” at receptors + decoded message in the brain; wide spectrum of odors Aroma descriptors: floral, fruity, camphoraceous, minty, musky, goaty, grassy, putrid, pungent, burnt, sharp (acid) Rotten smell can be attributed to the breakdown of certain amino acids producing ammonia based molecules and sulfur-based compounds Responding to aroma o Adaptation: becoming used to the aroma so it is not so pronounced o Detection threshold: very subtle (low volatility in food) o Recognition threshold: vinegar; mustard in sauce; one knows exactly what it is and comes with plenty of tasting practice Flavors Substance + concentration + molecular “fit” usually charge depolarized/polarized receptor cells within taste bud Four classical taste sensations of the human palate: o Sour - H+ ions in acids o Sweet - OH, amino acids, aldehydes (cinnamon), simple cards (sugars—fructose, sucrose, glucose) o Bitter - caffeine, theobromine (coffee and chocolate), quinine, nicotine, all alkaloids o Salt Hot/spicy? Actually a pain response in the lips/back of throat Umami - an acid from glutamate; robust, savory, “full mouth” feel (MSG, soy sauce, fish sauce) Fat - receptions specifically for fat on the palate 1
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90% of flavor is aroma Taste Interactions: o Bitterness has a lingering taste and can be reduced by sugars o Sweetness may often be enhanced by salt o Acids intensify saltiness o Sugar in subthreshold c+ reduces saltiness Flavor marriages: o Ginger and molasses; spinach and sorrel; sherry and brandy; orange and clove o Opposites: sweet and sour; sweet relish and mustard; apples and bleu cheese/peanut butter Flavor enhancers: o Salt o MSG (monosodium glutamate) - manufactured in powder/liquid form; also naturally occurring o Soy sauce o Sugar o Acid (lemon, white vinegar) Y E A S T B R E A D & C A K E S Types of flour pg. 1066 Wheat & processed flours (bleached, whole wheat, pastry) - highest gluten Bread, cake - lower percent protein, lower gluten Rye, oat, corn - will not form gluten, dense and flat, usually blended with a high-protein wheat flour Gluten - an elastic network of proteins created when wheat flour is moistened and manipulated Higher the protein content, the greater the gluten-forming potential Flour primarily consists of five nutrients: Fat (less than 1%) Minerals (less than 1%) Moisture (no more than 15%) Starches (63-77%)
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  • Spring '05
  • food safety concerns, Diarrhea Abdominal cramps

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