ARC 318K - ARC 318K Human beings developed agriculture...

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ARC 318K Human beings developed agriculture first in the Nile Valley, present day Egypt, Syria, till down in present day Iran. That was about 10,000 years ago. Human beings from some places without contact with other places figured out the ability to grow crops. One of the earliest sites we discovered that showed signs of agriculture is Jericho. How you find old cities, they were big mountains. Jericho is not a big place 135m long 45m wide and at it’s height was home to a few hundred or small number of thousands of people. As Paleolithic peoples, they would stop at a spring, but with the development of agriculture they would use that spring to grow crops, and cities around it. They would fortify it with stones. Overtime, the walls of Jericho became more and more robust. They built stairs to get to the top of the wall to protect the city (by throwing stones, etc.) Jericho is probably the oldest town, occupied as early as 7,000 BCe. It’s construction – built almost completely of stone, they didn’t have the choice of wood there. They started building with mud, earth and then to stones. There’s no evidence of buildings for work purposes, only houses. Also, there are no streets, just a collection of huts. Little evidence that this people traded with other cities. So it was in that sense a proto city. The reason why they developed their architecture because of fear, they had reason to because they probably had a lot of attacks. Beginning of Cities. Chacoole (sp) had a trade center, it was larger than Jericho and shows clear differentiation of buildings according to use. It was 700 across and 700 yards wide. It was composed of mud essentially. Might use stone, vegetation, etc. as an aggregate to mud to make walls. It’s called cob construction. Walls are wider at the bottom than they are at the top. Higher floor on the door for animals not to crawl in. You can make pretty sophisticated cob construction such as the bomb cobs. You can also make bricks with frames, adobe construction. With adobe construction you can make long construction, different forms, like round walls, it’s widely used around the world, especially where it’s really dry (it’s durable unless you get water), it’s sustainable, very good insulation, and you can make relatively wide buildings with thick walls with it. Third way of building with dirty is pisse or ground earth construction, where you create a foundation usually with stone, you then throw mud in and grind it with a stick. You leave holes to put wood in to get up higher. Also, you can use that technique in the bottom and then get the adobe technique on top. Back to chacocoyu, large buildings, houses didn’t have any doors and any streets. You’d get from place to place by putting a lather on one side, then walking on the roofs and getting inside where they wanted through a window. They lived mostly on the roof, when the weather is good. A whole pile of trapezoid rectangular buildings all together. Built with wooden uprights, created frames into which the bricks would be placed, the
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course ARC 318K taught by Professor Long during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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ARC 318K - ARC 318K Human beings developed agriculture...

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