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blood, heart, and fetal circulation.docx - Bio 65 Blood,...

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Bio 65Blood, the Heart and Fetal CirculationBloodBlood cells are in plasmaNucleated red blood cells are abnormalRed blood cells-Hemoglobin: protein contained in the blood cells-Circulate in blood stream for 120 days; when they are old they are discarded but the iron in them is reusedAnemias-Deficient in iron (iron deficient anemia)-Sickle cell anemia: red blood cells collapse and clump to stop blood flowBlood platelets have no nucleus/organelles; they are bits of plasmaBlood clot: Combination of platelets, fibrin, blood cellsHemophilias: tend to bleed and bleed with a simple injuryWhite blood cells-Neutrophil: they are neutral in color, contain complex nucleus; first line of defense to bacteria-Basophil: are blue in color; have a bi-loped nucleus, releases heparinHeparin pulls blood clots apartHistamine: causes runny nose (flu like systems); which is why we take antihistamine-Eocinophils: have two segments to nucleus, two responses, involved in allergic reactionsArganulocytes (cells without granules in the cytoplasm)-Monocytes:-Lymphocytes: produce antibodies that have a memory (which is why we get flu shots)Mononucleosis: infected lymphocytes-Leukemia: cancer of white blood cells (acute {fatal} or chronic)Types of bloodBlood typeSurface proteins on RBCsMay receive blood formOnoneO onlyuniversal donorAAA and OABB and OABA and BAB, B and Ouniversalrecipient-RH protein: R stands for recess, a monkey protein,HeartComposed of cardiac muscle tissue, striated muscleVery large in new born, also grows very rapidly, it is 12x larger in adulthood than at birthDuring embryonic development, the heart rotates (left ventricle is rotated posteriorly, right ventricle is turned to thefront)Pericardium: double membrane of the heart-Pericarditis: an infection to pericardium, causes extreme chest painVenus blood goes inRight ventricle: receives venus blood and sends to trunk then to lungs*right is tri-cuspid; left is bi-cuspid*Right atrioventricular valves: 3 flaps called cusps; tri-cuspidPulmonary veins: rich in oxygen, brings blood to upper chamber on the left sideLeft atrioventricular valve: has 2 flaps; bi-cuspidLeft ventricle wall is thicker which connects to aortaPapillary muscles have cords (chorde tendinae) that attach to cusps which makes heart contractMurmurs: sounds from heart when heart is larger than usualAtherosclerosis: plaque in arteries; fats, cholesterol
Bio 65Arteriosclerosis: progressing narrowing of arteries with agingAngina pectoris: chest painMyocardial infarction (MI): heart muscle interrupted blood flow “heart attack”Heart tissue not replaces after damagescar tissueCoronary bypass surgeryFetal circulationThe order-Placentaumbilical vein with oxygen and nutrientsductus venosus, through the liverinferior vena cavarightatrium of the heartforamen ovaleleft atriumleft ventricleaortaumbilical arteriesback to placentaRight atriumright ventriclepulmonary trunkductus arteriosusaortaumbilical arteriesback to placenta-Following birth, 5 events occur1.Umbilical vein forms the round ligament of the liver2.Ductus venosus forms the ligamentum venosum3.Foramen ovale closes within 1 year to form the fossa ovalis4.Ductus arteriosus contracts, pulmonary trunk blood circulates to lungs, later forms ligamnetum arteriosum5.Umbilical arteries from umbilical ligaments
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Kerr

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