020817 Gene Expression I (DNA to RNA).pptx

020817 Gene Expression I (DNA to RNA).pptx - BIOL 0500 Cell...

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BIOL 0500 Cell and Molecular Biology Gene Expression I: DNA to RNA February 8, 2017 Reading ECB Chapter 7 pages 223-238: From DNA to RNA ECB Chapter 8 (all): Control of Gene Expression ECB Chapter 10 pages 334-339
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Goals: Gene expression I: DNA to RNA 1. The central dogma of molecular biology 2. Introduction to RNA 3. Transcription (DNA to RNA) 4. Methods: cDNA libraries and PCR 5. Gene regulation
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The central dogma of molecular biology
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The central dogma of molecular biology Genes are expressed through the processes of transcription and translation Transcription copies DNA to RNA Translation copies RNA to protein There are exceptions: some RNAs are not translated into proteins: 1. Some RNAs function as RNAs (e.g. ribosomal RNAs, tRNAs) 2. microRNAs regulate translation and transcription 3. RNAs can be regulated after synthesis (stability and degradation)
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Genes are expressed at different levels (rates) Some proteins are required at high levels in the cell, whereas others are needed in small quantities Gene expression is tightly regulated to achieve optimal levels of protein
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Introduction to RNA
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The chemical structure of RNA differs slightly from DNA RNA contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose (–OH group at the 2’ carbon) RNA contains Uracil instead of Thymine (U can base pair with A) RNA is single stranded
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Single-stranded RNA can fold into a variety of shapes The single-stranded nature of RNA has functional consequences RNAs have structural, regulatory and catalytic roles Folding is mediated by: -short stretches of nucleotides that base pair with complementary sequences -non-conventional base pair interactions can also contribute
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Transcription: DNA to RNA
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RNA is transcribed 5’ to 3’ by RNA polymerase DNA contains a coding strand and a template strand Remember: genes can be oriented in either direction on the DNA The RNA transcript matches the sequence of the coding strand
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