lecture 6 HW and sources of variation

lecture 6 HW and sources of variation - EVOLUTION IN THE...

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EVOLUTION IN THE NEWS
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Evolution in the News Volunteers for September 25 and 27
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Thu Aug 30 Intro What is evolution- and why does it matter to me? Chapter 1 Tu Sept. 4 Evidence for Evolution Chapter 6 pp 28-38 Th Sept 6 Emergence of Life Bring PRS Clicker to Class!!! Chapter 4 http://www.livescience.com/animals/0604
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Darwin did not have an explanation for the mechanism of: A. evolution A.heredity C. how organisms are adapted to their environment.
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Which of the following processes does not introduce genetic variation into a population? A. recombination B. mutation C. mitosis D. none of the above
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Between 1884 (the year Mendel died) and 1888 details of mitosis and meiosis were reported, the cell nucleus was identified as the location of the genetic material, and "qualities" were even proposed to be transmitted on chromosomes to daughter cells at mitosis. In 1903 Walter Sutton and Theodore Boveri formally proposed that chromosomes contain the genes. The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance is one of the foundations of genetics and explains the physical reality of Mendel's principles of inheritance.
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Chromosomes and genes can alter as a result of structural changes. These changes are called mutations. The original state can usually not be re-established. The loss of hereditary information is irreversible. A change caused by a mutation is kept throughout all following generations, if it does not cause lethality. Mutations
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A deficiency is the loss of a chromosomal end fragment. Since it occurs normally only in one of two homologous partners, the result is a pairing of a defect and an intact chromosome. Deficiencies can be recognized by this. The intact partner chromosome shows how large the missing fragment of the defect chromosome is. A deletion is the loss of an inner chromosomal fragment. It can be recognized by a loop of the intact partner chromosome at the site where the missing fragment would have been in the defect chromosome. The loop allows conclusions about the size and the site of the deletion.
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A duplication is the doubling of one or several chromosomal fragments. It shows also as a loop but this time, the loop is in the defect partner chromosome. To find out, whether the loop has been caused by a deletion or a duplication, the band pattern of the chromosome has to be analyzed. The mutation is caused by a duplication, if the band pattern of the loop occurs twice. Usually, the pattern can be found again in a domain neighbouring the loop. The loop is caused by a deletion, if a fragment is missing. An inversion is the change of direction of a chromosomal segment. It results from a segment that has broken out of the chromosome and fused again at the same site but with inverted direction. A pairing of homologous chromosomes is possible, though rather complex loops may be formed.
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lecture 6 HW and sources of variation - EVOLUTION IN THE...

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