Legal Notes.pdf - Chapter 3 notes Sources of Law Courts And...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter​ ​3​ ​notes:​ ​Sources​ ​of​ ​Law,​ ​Courts,​ ​And​ ​Dispute​ ​Regulations ● ● ● ● Three​ ​sources​ ​of​ ​law ○ Constitutions:​ ​Courts​ ​may​ ​be​ ​called​ ​on​ ​to​ ​interpret​ ​U.S.​ ​constitution​ ​or​ ​a​ ​state constitution. ○ Statutes:​ ​congress​ ​enacts​ ​statutes​ ​in​ ​such​ ​areas​ ​as​ ​public​ ​assistance,​ ​food​ ​and drugs,​ ​patents​ ​and​ ​copyrights,​ ​labor​ ​relations,​ ​and​ ​civil​ ​rights ○ Regulations:​ ​Federal​ ​regulations​ ​and​ ​rules​ ​are​ ​printed​ ​in​ ​the​ ​multi-volume​ ​Code of​ ​Federal​ ​Regulations​ ​(CFR),​ ​which​ ​is​ ​revised​ ​and​ ​updated​ ​every​ ​year ○ Common​ ​Law​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Doctrine​ ​of​ ​Stare​ ​Decisis ■ Reversing​ ​U.S.​ ​Supreme​ ​Court​ ​precedent ■ Splits​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Federal​ ​Circuits ○ Restatements ■ Not​ ​binding,​ ​publishing​ ​by​ ​American​ ​Law​ ​Institute The​ ​U.S.​ ​and​ ​State​ ​Court​ ​Systems ○ Federal​ ​Courts ■ Courts​ ​of​ ​limited​ ​subject​ ​matter​ ​jurisdiction,​ ​meaning​ ​they​ ​can​ ​adjudicate only​ ​certain​ ​types​ ​of​ ​cases ○ State​ ​Courts ■ Courts​ ​that​ ​have​ ​general​ ​subject​ ​matter​ ​jurisdiction​ ​and​ ​can​ ​therefore hear​ ​any​ ​type​ ​of​ ​dispute Federal​ ​Jurisdiction ○ Federal​ ​Question ■ jurisdiction​ ​exists​ ​when​ ​a​ ​dispute​ ​concerns​ ​federal​ ​law,​ ​statutes,​ ​or administrative​ ​regulation​ ​or​ ​treaties​ ​of​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States ○ Diversity​ ​Jurisdiction ■ exists​ ​in​ ​lawsuits​ ​between​ ​citizens​ ​of​ ​different​ ​states​ ​and​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​in controversy,​ ​exclusive​ ​of​ ​interest​ ​and​ ​all​ ​costs,​ ​exceeds​ ​$75,000.​ ​The “Erie​ ​Doctrine”​ ​set​ ​forth​ ​in​ ​Erie​ ​Railroad​ ​v.​ ​Tompkins,​ ​304​ ​U.S.​ ​64​ ​(1938). ○ Determining​ ​Citizenship ■ Individuals:​ ​where​ ​legal​ ​residence​ ​or​ ​domicile ■ Corporation:​ ​may​ ​have​ ​dual​ ​citizenship.​ ​Deemed​ ​citizen​ ​of​ ​state​ ​of incorporation,​ ​plus​ ​citizen​ ​of​ ​principal​ ​place​ ​of​ ​business Federal​ ​Courts ○ U.S.​ ​District​ ​Courts ■ Federal​ ​Trial​ ​Courts ■ Currently​ ​there​ ​are​ ​94​ ​district​ ​courts​ ​in​ ​the​ ​federal​ ​system ■ Exhibit​ ​3.2 ○ U.S.​ ​Courts​ ​of​ ​Appeal ■ Review​ ​decisions​ ​of​ ​trial​ ​courts ■ Review​ ​decisions​ ​of​ ​administrative​ ​agencies​ ​and​ ​commissions ■ Issue​ ​order​ ​to​ ​lower​ ​courts​ ​and​ ​litigants ○ Specialized​ ​Federal​ ​Courts ● ● ● ● ● ■ Tax​ ​courts ■ Bankruptcy​ ​courts ■ Courts​ ​of​ ​International​ ​Trade ■ U.S.​ ​Court​ ​of​ ​Appeals​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Armed​ ​Forces ■ U.S.​ ​Court​ ​of​ ​Appeals​ ​for​ ​Veterans​ ​Claims U.S.​ ​Supreme​ ​Court ○ Consists​ ​of​ ​one​ ​chief​ ​justice​ ​and​ ​eight​ ​associate​ ​justices​ ​who​ ​hear​ ​mainly​ ​cases on​ ​appeal​ ​from​ ​U.S.​ ​Courts​ ​of​ ​Appeal State​ ​Courts ○ State​ ​Trial​ ​Courts ■ Courts​ ​of​ ​Limited​ ​Jurisdiction ● Decide​ ​minor​ ​criminal​ ​matters,​ ​civil​ ​suits​ ​up​ ​to​ ​$5,000,​ ​and​ ​other specialized​ ​legal​ ​disputes ■ Courts​ ​of​ ​General​ ​or​ ​Unlimited​ ​Jurisdiction ○ State​ ​Appellate​ ​Courts ■ Usually​ ​consist​ ​of​ ​a​ ​panel​ ​of​ ​three​ ​judges​ ​that​ ​reviews​ ​trial​ ​court​ ​rulings for​ ​harmful​ ​errors​ ​of​ ​law​ ​and/or​ ​procedure ○ State​ ​Supreme​ ​Court ■ Each​ ​state​ ​has​ ​supreme​ ​court Standing ○ Party​ ​filing​ ​suit​ ​must​ ​have​ ​a​ ​“real​ ​and​ ​substantial​ ​controversy”​ ​to​ ​litigate​ ​against the​ ​defendant ■ Plaintiff​ ​must​ ​be​ ​the​ ​proper​ ​person ■ Plaintiff​ ​must​ ​have​ ​a​ ​personal​ ​interest​ ​in​ ​the​ ​outcome ■ Plaintiff​ ​will​ ​benefit​ ​from​ ​a​ ​favorable​ ​ruling Personal​ ​Jurisdiction ○ Court​ ​had​ ​legal​ ​authority​ ​over​ ​the​ ​parties​ ​to​ ​the​ ​suit ■ Court​ ​can​ ​have​ ​jurisdiction​ ​based​ ​on: ● Defendant’s​ ​residence ● Defendant’s​ ​act(s),​ ​or ● Location​ ​of​ ​property​ ​in​ ​question ○ Long​ ​arm​ ​statutes: ○ Service​ ​of​ ​Process: ○ Personal​ ​jurisdiction​ ​and​ ​the​ ​internet: Choice​ ​of​ ​Forum,​ ​Waiver​ ​of​ ​Right​ ​to​ ​Trial​ ​by​ ​Jury,​ ​And​ ​Choice​ ​of​ ​Law ○ Choice​ ​of​ ​forum​ ​clause​ ​in​ ​contracts​ ​will​ ​be​ ​honored​ ​unless: ■ The​ ​clause​ ​was​ ​fraudulent ■ Enforcement​ ​would​ ​derive​ ​a​ ​party​ ​of​ ​‘his​ ​day​ ​in​ ​court’,​ ​or ■ Enforcement​ ​would​ ​contravene​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​public​ ​policy​ ​of​ ​the​ ​forum​ ​in which​ ​suit​ ​is​ ​brought. ○ Doctrine​ ​of​ ​Forum​ ​Non​ ​Conveniens ○ Waiver​ ​of​ ​Right​ ​to​ ​Jury​ ​Trial ■ Federal​ ​and​ ​state​ ​constitutions​ ​guarantee​ ​a​ ​defendant’s​ ​right​ ​to​ ​a​ ​jury​ ​trial However,​ ​that​ ​right​ ​can​ ​be​ ​waived​ ​and​ ​the​ ​issue​ ​litigated​ ​in​ ​a​ ​‘bench​ ​trial’ (with​ ​only​ ​a​ ​judge) ○ Choice​ ​of​ ​Law ■ Usually​ ​comes​ ​up​ ​in​ ​diversity​ ​cases ■ Governed​ ​by​ ​complicated​ ​set​ ​of​ ​conflict-of-laws​ ​rules Alter​ ​to​ ​Litigation ○ Litigation​ ​is​ ​very​ ​expensive ○ More​ ​companies​ ​are​ ​using​ ​ADR​ ​techniques​ ​such​ ​as​ ​mediation​ ​and​ ​arbitration ○ Percentage​ ​of​ ​case​ ​actually​ ​going​ ​to​ ​trial​ ​is​ ​steadily​ ​decreasing ○ Pretrial​ ​Conferences​ ​(FRCP) ○ Rejected-Offer​ ​Sanctions ○ Negotiation​ ​as​ ​Evidence​ ​of​ ​Fault ○ Enforcing​ ​Agreements​ ​to​ ​Arbitrate ○ Applications​ ​of​ ​Tort​ ​and​ ​Criminal​ ​Law​ ​to​ ​ADR ■ Tort​ ​is​ ​a​ ​civil​ ​wrong​ ​causing​ ​injury​ ​to​ ​person,​ ​property,​ ​or​ ​certain economic​ ​relationships ■ Puffing? ■ What​ ​about​ ​making​ ​an​ ​offer​ ​that​ ​‘he​ ​can’t​ ​refuse’? Class​ ​Actions ○ When​ ​injury​ ​affects​ ​numerous​ ​persons​ ​in​ ​a​ ​common​ ​way ■ Dow​ ​Corning​ ​silicone​ ​implants ■ Class​ ​Action​ ​Fairness​ ​Act ■ CASE​ ​3.1​ ​Wal-Mart​ ​Stores,​ ​Inc.​ ​v.​ ​Duke​ ​(2011).​ ​Plaintiffs​ ​could​ ​not​ ​sue as​ ​a​ ​class Civil​ ​Procedure:​ ​Litigation​ ​Steps ○ Methods,​ ​procedures,​ ​and​ ​practices​ ​governing​ ​the​ ​processing​ ​of​ ​civil​ ​lawsuit, from​ ​start​ ​to​ ​finish ■ FRCP​ ​control​ ​process​ ​in​ ​federal​ ​courts ○ Filing,​ ​prosecuting,​ ​and​ ​defending​ ​against​ ​a​ ​claim. ■ Complaint,​ ​summons,​ ​Answer​ ​and​ ​Counterclaim​ ​(affirmative​ ​defense, default​ ​judgment) ○ Pretrial​ ​Activity ■ Pretrial​ ​Motions ● Motion​ ​to​ ​Dismiss:​ ​with,​ ​or​ ​without,​ ​prejudice ● Motion​ ​for​ ​judgement​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Pleadings ● Summary​ ​Judgement ● Pretrial​ ​and​ ​Status​ ​Conferences ○ Trial ■ 1.​ ​Selection​ ​of​ ​the​ ​jury​ ​(if​ ​the​ ​trial​ ​is​ ​before​ ​a​ ​jury).​ ​The​ ​judge​ ​or​ ​attorneys may​ ​question​ ​the​ ​potential​ ​jurors. ■ 2.​ ​Opening​ ​statements,​ ​first​ ​by​ ​plaintiff’s​ ​attorney​ ​and​ ​then​ ​by​ ​defendant’s attorney. ■ 3.​ ​Presentation​ ​of​ ​evidence​ ​and​ ​witnesses​ ​by​ ​the​ ​plaintiff’s​ ​attorney ■ ● ● ● 4.​ ​Presentation​ ​of​ ​evidence​ ​and​ ​witnesses​ ​by​ ​the​ ​defendant’s​ ​attorney 5.​ ​Motion​ ​for​ ​the​ ​directed​ ​verdict​ ​by​ ​either​ ​attorney 6.​ ​Closing​ ​arguments,​ ​first​ ​by​ ​the​ ​plaintiff’s​ ​attorney,​ ​then​ ​by​ ​the defendant’s​ ​attorney,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​rebuttal​ ​by​ ​the​ ​plaintiff’s​ ​attorney ■ 7.​ ​The​ ​judge’s​ ​instructions​ ​to​ ​the​ ​jury ■ 8.​ ​Jury​ ​deliberations ■ 9.​ ​Announcement​ ​of​ ​the​ ​jury​ ​verdict ○ Postrial​ ​Motions ■ Judgement​ ​Notwithstanding​ ​the​ ​Verdict​ ​(JNOV) ■ New​ ​Trial ○ Appeals Alternative​ ​Dispute​ ​Resolution ○ Negotiation ■ The​ ​give​ ​and​ ​take​ ​people​ ​engage​ ​in​ ​when​ ​coming​ ​to​ ​terms​ ​with​ ​each other ■ Liability​ ​for​ ​failed​ ​negotiations ○ Mediation ■ Parties​ ​themselves​ ​agree​ ​to​ ​reach​ ​a​ ​mutually​ ​beneficial​ ​resolution​ ​with the​ ​assistance​ ​of​ ​a​ ​third​ ​person​ ​(the​ ​mediator) ■ When​ ​to​ ​use​ ​mediation? ■ In​ ​many​ ​ways,​ ​mediation​ ​is​ ​an​ ​extension​ ​of​ ​the​ ​parties’​ ​negotiations ■ Selecting​ ​a​ ​mediator ● Society​ ​of​ ​Professionals​ ​in​ ​Dispute​ ​Resolution​ ​(SPDR) ● American​ ​Mediation​ ​Council​ ​(AMC) ○ Arbitration ■ The​ ​resolution​ ​of​ ​a​ ​dispute​ ​by​ ​a​ ​neutral​ ​third​ ​party.​ ​Usually​ ​binding​ ​on​ ​the parties ■ Arbitration​ ​process ● Pre-hearing:​ ​parties​ ​submits​ ​briefs,​ ​and​ ​volunteer​ ​supporting documentation ● Hearing:​ ​generally​ ​American​ ​Arbitration​ ​Association​ ​rules​ ​are followed ● Pose-hearing:​ ​arbitrator​ ​makes​ ​award,​ ​often​ ​without​ ​a​ ​written opinion ■ Choice​ ​of​ ​arbitrator ■ Arbitration​ ​clauses​ ​should​ ​stipulate: ● Binding​ ​or​ ​Nonbinding ● Scopes​ ​of​ ​Discovery ● Types​ ​and​ ​Scope​ ​of​ ​Damages ● Timetable ● Rules​ ​and​ ​Procedures ■ Judicial​ ​Enforcement​ ​of​ ​Arbitration​ ​Clauses:​ ​Federal​ ​Arbitration​ ​Act ■ ■ ■ ● CASE​ ​3.2​ ​American​ ​Express​ ​Co.​ ​v.​ ​Italian​ ​Colors​ ​Restaurants (2013).​ ​-​ ​Waiver​ ​clause​ ​was​ ​enforceable,​ ​so​ ​the merchant-plaintiffs​ ​could​ ​not​ ​bring​ ​a​ ​class​ ​action,​ ​regardless​ ​of​ ​the costs. Judicial​ ​Review​ ​of​ ​Awards ● FAA​ ​lists​ ​for​ ​circumstances​ ​for​ ​review: ○ Award​ ​procured​ ​by​ ​corruption​ ​or​ ​fraud ○ Arbitrator​ ​was​ ​impartial ○ Arbitrator​ ​engaged​ ​in​ ​misconduct;​ ​or ○ Arbitrator​ ​exceeded​ ​her​ ​powers ● ■ ● ● ADR​ ​Hybrids ○ Hybrids ■ Med-Arb:​ ​Parties​ ​enter​ ​mediation​ ​with​ ​the​ ​commitment​ ​to​ ​submit​ ​to binding​ ​arbitration​ ​if​ ​mediation​ ​fails​ ​to​ ​resolve​ ​the​ ​conflicts ■ Arb-Med:​ ​case​ ​presented​ ​to​ ​arbitrator​ ​who​ ​keeps​ ​the​ ​award​ ​secret​ ​while parties​ ​mediate​ ​their​ ​differences ■ Minitrial:​ ​Lawyers​ ​conduct​ ​discovery​ ​for​ ​a​ ​limited​ ​period​ ​and​ ​present​ ​their case​ ​to​ ​executives​ ​from​ ​each​ ​party​ ​presided​ ​over​ ​by​ ​a​ ​third​ ​party ■ Summary​ ​Jury​ ​Trial:​ ​Parties​ ​present​ ​their​ ​cases​ ​to​ ​a​ ​real​ ​jury​ ​which renders​ ​a​ ​nonbinding​ ​verdict,​ ​allowing​ ​parties​ ​to​ ​facilitate​ ​settlement ■ Collaborative​ ​Law​ ​and​ ​Other​ ​Techniques ● Attempts​ ​to​ ​combine​ ​mediation​ ​and​ ​negotiation ● Ombudsmans Discovery ■ Prior​ ​to​ ​trial,​ ​parties​ ​collect​ ​evidence​ ​to​ ​support​ ​their​ ​claims ■ Depositions ■ Interrogatories ■ Requests​ ​for​ ​Production​ ​of​ ​Documents ■ Discovery​ ​of​ ​Email ■ Corporate​ ​documents,​ ​both​ ​tangible​ ​and​ ​intangible​ ​(computer​ ​hard​ ​drives and​ ​email)​ ​can​ ​be​ ​discovered​ ​and​ ​used​ ​to​ ​find​ ​company​ ​liable ■ No​ ​“Spoliation.” ● Spoliation​ ​Inference ■ Managers​ ​must​ ​have​ ​document​ ​retention​ ​policies​ ​in​ ​place ■ Necessary​ ​Elements​ ​of​ ​a​ ​Document​ ​Retention​ ​Program: ● Well-planned​ ​and​ ​systematic ● No​ ​destruction​ ​in​ ​the​ ​face​ ​of​ ​a​ ​potential​ ​lawsuit ● No​ ​selective​ ​destruction ○ Attorney-Client​ ​Privilege,​ ​The​ ​Attorney​ ​Work-Product​ ​Doctrine,​ ​and​ ​Other Privileges ■ Attorney-Client​ ​Privilege ● Application​ ​to​ ​Corporate​ ​Clients.​ ​“Subject​ ​Matter”​ ​test​ ​in​ ​Upjohn​ ​v. United​ ​States,​ ​449​ ​U.S.​ ​383​ ​(1981). ■ ■ ■ ● Limitations:​ ​criminal​ ​activity Reporting​ ​Up​ ​the​ ​Ladder:​ ​Is​ ​the​ ​privilege​ ​under​ ​siege? ● Sarbanes-Oxley Attorney​ ​Work​ ​Product ● Attorney​ ​Work-Product​ ​Doctrine ○ Protects​ ​information​ ​than​ ​an​ ​attorney​ ​prepares​ ​in​ ​the course​ ​of​ ​his​ ​or​ ​her​ ​work Other​ ​Privileges ● Examples”​ ​physician-patient,​ ​corporate​ ​“self”​ ​analyses CHAPTER​ ​4:​ ​BUSINESS​ ​AND​ ​THE​ ​CONSTITUTION ● Introduction ○ The​ ​Constitution​ ​is​ ​the​ ​supreme​ ​law​ ​of​ ​the​ ​land​ ​and​ ​is​ ​the​ ​source​ ​of​ ​federal power. ○ Federal​ ​power​ ​delegated​ ​from​ ​the​ ​States.​ ​Powers​ ​not​ ​delegated​ ​to​ ​the​ ​federal government​ ​are​ ​retained​ ​by​ ​the​ ​States​ ​and​ ​the​ ​people. ● Structure​ ​of​ ​Government ○ All​ ​powers​ ​not​ ​expressly​ ​given​ ​to​ ​the​ ​federal​ ​government​ ​in​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States Constitution​ ​belong​ ​to​ ​the​ ​States.​ ​Federal​ ​law​ ​is​ ​supreme,​ ​and​ ​prevails​ ​over​ ​state law​ ​in​ ​the​ ​event​ ​of​ ​a​ ​conflict​ ​between​ ​the​ ​state​ ​and​ ​federal​ ​governments. ● Separation​ ​of​ ​Powers ○ The​ ​Judicial​ ​Power ■ Article​ ​III ● Subject​ ​matter​ ​jurisdiction ● Appellate​ ​jurisdiction ● Original​ ​jurisdiction ■ Article​ ​I ● Tax,​ ​bankruptcy ■ Judicial​ ​review”​ ​Marbury​ ​v.​ ​Madison,​ ​5​ ​U.S.​ ​(1​ ​Cranch)​ ​137​ ​(1803).​ ​The Supreme​ ​Court​ ​has​ ​the​ ​power​ ​to​ ​declare​ ​acts​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Executive​ ​or Legislative​ ​branches​ ​unconstitutional ○ The​ ​Executive​ ​Power ■ Presidential​ ​Appointees ■ Presidential​ ​Pardons​ ​and​ ​Reprieves ■ Veto​ ​Powers ■ War​ ​Powers​ ​(Iraq​ ​1991/2003) ○ The​ ​Legislative​ ​Power​ ​Under​ ​Article​ ​1,​ ​Section​ ​8 ■ Regulate​ ​commerce​ ​with​ ​foreign​ ​nations​ ​and​ ​between​ ​states ■ Provide​ ​for​ ​the​ ​common​ ​defense​ ​and​ ​general​ ​welfare ■ Coin​ ​money ■ Establish​ ​post​ ​offices ■ Lay​ ​and​ ​collect​ ​taxes ■ Issue​ ​patents​ ​and​ ​copyrights ● ● ● ■ Declare​ ​war ■ Raise​ ​and​ ​support​ ​armies ○ Conflicts​ ​between​ ​the​ ​branches: ■ Checks​ ​and​ ​balances ■ Executive​ ​privilege.​ ​Clinton​ ​v.​ ​Jones,​ ​520​ ​U.S.​ ​681​ ​(1997). ■ Line-Item​ ​Veto.​ ​In​ ​Clinton​ ​v.​ ​City​ ​of​ ​New​ ​York,​ ​524​ ​U.S.​ ​417​ ​(1998),​ ​the Court​ ​declared​ ​the​ ​line-item​ ​veto​ ​unconstitutional​ ​holding​ ​that​ ​it​ ​gave​ ​the President​ ​legislative​ ​powers Supremacy​ ​Clause​ ​and​ ​Preemption ○ Supremacy​ ​Clause ■ The​ ​constitution​ ​and​ ​treaties​ ​take​ ​precedence​ ​over​ ​state​ ​laws​ ​and​ ​state judges​ ​must​ ​follow​ ​federal​ ​law ○ Preemption ■ A​ ​state​ ​law​ ​in​ ​direct​ ​conflict​ ​with​ ​federal​ ​law,​ ​or​ ​state​ ​law​ ​in​ ​an​ ​area​ ​under Congress’​ ​exclusive​ ​jurisdiction​ ​is​ ​preempted​ ​by​ ​the​ ​federal​ ​law ○ Geier​ ​v.​ ​American​ ​Honda​ ​Motor​ ​Co.​ ​(2000):​ ​National​ ​Traffic​ ​and​ ​Motor​ ​Vehicle Act​ ​(1996)​ ​Supreme​ ​Court​ ​held​ ​state​ ​product​ ​liability​ ​was​ ​preempted​ ​based​ ​upon manufacturer’s​ ​failure​ ​to​ ​equip​ ​a​ ​vehicle​ ​with​ ​air​ ​bags. ○ 2011:​ ​Supreme​ ​Court​ ​ruled​ ​that​ ​the​ ​federal​ ​Immigration​ ​Reform​ ​and​ ​Control​ ​Act did​ ​NOT​ ​preempt​ ​the​ ​provisions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Legal​ ​Arizona​ ​Workers​ ​Act​ ​which​ ​required employers​ ​to​ ​use​ ​E-Verify​ ​to​ ​confirm​ ​worker’s​ ​eligibility Federalism ○ Federal​ ​government’s​ ​powers​ ​are​ ​limited​ ​to​ ​those​ ​expressly​ ​set​ ​forth​ ​in​ ​the​ ​U.S. Constitution.​ ​These​ ​powers​ ​are​ ​also​ ​subject​ ​to​ ​specific​ ​restrictions​ ​such​ ​as​ ​those found​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Bill​ ​of​ ​Rights. ○ Eleventh​ ​Amendment ■ Further​ ​protects​ ​the​ ​balance​ ​between​ ​powers​ ​of​ ​the​ ​federal​ ​government and​ ​the​ ​states​ ​by​ ​granting​ ​immunity​ ​to​ ​states​ ​sued​ ​in​ ​federal​ ​court ■ Can​ ​Congress​ ​“abrogate”​ ​(or​ ​annul)​ ​the​ ​states’​ ​Eleventh​ ​Amendment immunity? ■ Can​ ​a​ ​state​ ​be​ ​sued​ ​for​ ​failure​ ​to​ ​provide​ ​ADA​ ​access​ ​to​ ​courthouses? Yes.​ ​Access​ ​to​ ​courtrooms​ ​was​ ​a​ ​valid​ ​exercise​ ​of​ ​Congress’​ ​powers​ ​to enforce​ ​14th​ ​amendment.​ ​(Tennessee​ ​v.​ ​Lane,​ ​2004) ○ Dual​ ​Sovereignty ■ U.S.​ ​Supreme​ ​Court​ ​struck​ ​down​ ​the​ ​Brady​ ​Handgun​ ​Violence​ ​Prevention Act​ ​requiring​ ​state​ ​law​ ​enforcement​ ​officers​ ​to​ ​conduct​ ​background checks​ ​and​ ​receive​ ​reports​ ​from​ ​handgun​ ​sellers ■ But​ ​see​ ​Reno​ ​.​ ​Condon​ ​(2000)​ ​which​ ​upheld​ ​privacy​ ​of​ ​drivers’​ ​licenses The​ ​Commerce​ ​Clause ○ Found​ ​in​ ​Article​ ​1,​ ​Section​ ​8​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Constitution,​ ​gives​ ​congress​ ​exclusive jurisdiction​ ​to​ ​regulate​ ​commerce​ ​with​ ​foreign​ ​nations,​ ​with​ ​Indian​ ​Tribes​ ​and between​ ​the​ ​states.​ ​This​ ​is​ ​a​ ​restraint​ ​of​ ​state​ ​action​ ​and​ ​a​ ​source​ ​of​ ​federal authority ○ ● ● 1824-1887 ■ In​ ​Gibbons​ ​v.​ ​Ogden​ ​(1824),​ ​a​ ​state​ ​navigation​ ​monopoly​ ​(or​ ​almost​ ​any activity​ ​that​ ​impacted​ ​interstate​ ​commerce)​ ​violated​ ​a​ ​federal​ ​statute governing​ ​interstate​ ​commerce​ ​clause ○ 1887-1937 ■ Court​ ​developed​ ​a​ ​much​ ​narrower​ ​view​ ​of​ ​interstate​ ​commerce​ ​than Gibbons.​ ​Predominantly​ ​local​ ​activity​ ​that​ ​did​ ​not​ ​cross​ ​state​ ​lines​ ​did​ ​not fall​ ​under​ ​the​ ​purview​ ​of​ ​Congress ○ 1937-1995 ■ In​ ​NLRB​ ​v.​ ​Jones​ ​&​ ​Laughlin​ ​Steel​ ​Corp.​ ​(1937),​ ​Roosevelt’s​ ​“New​ ​Deal” Court​ ​widened​ ​the​ ​scope​ ​of​ ​federal​ ​interstate​ ​commerce​ ​powers,​ ​holding that​ ​Congress​ ​could​ ​regulate​ ​a​ ​plant’s​ ​labor​ ​relations​ ​because​ ​a​ ​strike would​ ​impact​ ​steel​ ​shipped​ ​across​ ​interstate​ ​lines. ■ In​ ​Heart​ ​of​ ​Atlanta​ ​and​ ​Katzenbach​ ​v.​ ​McClung​ ​(both​ ​1964),​ ​the​ ​Supreme Court​ ​held​ ​federal​ ​civil​ ​rights​ ​legislation​ ​applied​ ​to​ ​“local”​ ​businesses because​ ​a​ ​substantial​ ​portion​ ​of​ ​the​ ​guests​ ​or​ ​food​ ​moved​ ​in​ ​interstate commerce ○ 1995-Present ■ Court​ ​changed​ ​course​ ​and​ ​limited​ ​interstate​ ​commerce​ ​powers​ ​in​ ​U.S.​ ​v. Lopez​ ​(2000),​ ​by​ ​striking​ ​down​ ​the​ ​Gun-Free​ ​School​ ​Zones​ ​Act​ ​banning guns​ ​near​ ​schools​ ​as​ ​beyond​ ​the​ ​power​ ​of​ ​Congress. ■ In​ ​U.S.​ ​v.​ ​Morrison​ ​(2000),​ ​Court​ ​struck​ ​down​ ​Violence​ ​Against​ ​Women’s Act ■ Patient​ ​Protection​ ​and​ ​Affordable​ ​Care​ ​Act​ ​of​ ​2010. ● CASE​ ​4.1​ ​National​ ​Federation​ ​of​ ​Independent​ ​Business​ ​v. Sebelius​ ​(2012).​ ​Insurance​ ​mandate​ ​was​ ​a​ ​valid​ ​tax. ○ Limit​ ​on​ ​State​ ​Powers ■ Dormant​ ​or​ ​Negative​ ​Commerce​ ​Clause.​ ​State​ ​regulation​ ​will​ ​be​ ​upheld​ ​if it: ● Is​ ​rationally​ ​related​ ​to​ ​a​ ​legitimate​ ​state​ ​end,​ ​and ● Does​ ​not​ ​create​ ​an​ ​undue​ ​burden​ ​on​ ​interstate​ ​commerce Federal​ ​Fiscal​ ​Powers ○ Federal​ ​taxing​ ​powers​ ​limited​ ​and​ ​must​ ​be​ ​allocated​ ​among​ ​the​ ​states​ ​in proportion​ ​to​ ​the​ ​population ○ Plus,​ ​all​ ​custom​ ​duties​ ​and​ ​excise​ ​taxes​ ​must​ ​be​ ​uniform​ ​among​ ​the​ ​states Protection​ ​of​ ​Individual​ ​Liberties ○ The​ ​Constitution ■ The​ ​Contracts​ ​Clause:​ ​found​ ​in​ ​Article​ ​1,​ ​Section​ ​10​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Constitution. Prohibits​ ​States​ ​from​ ​impairing​ ​the​ ​obligation​ ​of​ ​existing​ ​contracts ■ The​ ​Ex​ ​Post​ ​Facto​ ​clause ■ Bills​ ​of​ ​Attainder ■ Privileges​ ​and​ ​Immunities ○ The​ ​Bill​ ​of​ ​Rights The​ ​first​ ​Ten​ ​Amendments​ ​to​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​Constitution​ ​are​ ​called​ ​the​ ​Bill​ ​of Rights ■ The​ ​contain​ ​specific​ ​guarantees​ ​of​ ​individual​ ​liberties​ ​and​ ​limitations​ ​on the​ ​federal​ ​government​ ​from​ ​infringing​ ​with​ ​those​ ​liberties ■ First​ ​Amendment:​ ​guarantees​ ​freedom​ ​of​ ​religion,​ ​speech,​ ​press,​ ​and assembly,​ ​while​ ​prohibiting​ ​the​ ​establishment​ ​of​ ​religion ■ Third​ ​Amendment:​ ​No​ ​soldier​ ​shall​ ​be​ ​quartered​ ​in​ ​any​ ​house ■ Fourth​ ​Amendment:​ ​prohibits​ ​unreasonable​ ​searches​ ​and​ ​seizures​ ​and warrants​ ​upon​ ​probable​ ​cause​ ​(see​ ​Ch.​ ​14). ■ Fifth​ ​Amendment: ● Grand​ ​jury​ ​requirement ● Forbids​ ​double​ ​jeopardy ● Right​ ​to​ ​remain​ ​silent ● Prohibits​ ​deprivation​ ​of​ ​life,​ ​liberty,​ ​or​ ​property​ ​without​ ​due process ● Just​ ​compensation​ ​for​ ​taking​ ​of​ ​private​ ​land ■ Sixth​ ​Amendment:​ ​Guarantees​ ​speedy​ ​and​ ​public​ ​trial​ ​in​ ​all​ ​criminal prosecutions ■ Seventh​ ​Amendment:​ ​Right​ ​to​ ​civil​ ​trial​ ​by​ ​jury​ ​if​ ​value​ ​is​ ​greater​ ​than​ ​$20 ■ Eighth​ ​Amendment:​ ​Prohibits​ ​excessive​ ​jail​ ​or​ ​fines,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​cruel​ ​and unusual​ ​punishment ■ Applicability​ ​to​ ​the​ ​States:​ ​Those​ ​rights​ ​“essential​ ​to​ ​liberty​ ​in​ ​the American​ ​scheme​ ​of​ ​justice”​ ​(Duncan​ ​v.​ ​Louisiana,​ ​1968)​ ​are​ ​applicable to​ ​the​ ​states​ ​via​ ​the​ ​Fourteenth​ ​Amendment’s​ ​Due​ ​Process​ ​and​ ​Privilege and​ ​Immunities​ ​clauses Freedom​ ​of​ ​Speech​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Press ○ Government​ ​cannot​ ​violate​ ​the​ ​right​ ​to​ ​free​ ​speech​ ​by​ ​either​ ​preventing​ ​it​ ​or mandating​ ​it​ ​(Hurley​ ​v.​ ​Irish​ ​American​ ​Gay,​ ​lesbian​ ​and​ ​Bisexual​ ​Group​ ​of Boston,​ ​1995) ○ Unprotec...
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