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THEMES:CONCEPTS:How Nazi policy towards the Jews evolved*****Jewish responses to Nazi persecutionPhase 1: Resistance, disbelief (it’s just temporary), ignore it, fightResistanceResistance started with the youthResistance started on small (ghettos food smuggling), Righteous among the nations (nonJews who helped), inside resistance, people maintaining humanity/dignity (much smallerscale) relationships with others, woods and the partisansAlso resistance in camps, gunpowder in AuschwitzNo one realized it was total elimination (Final Solution) in the beginning, there was stillhopeIlya Mishkin (Minsk Ghetto) supported the resistance (armed resistance) and helpedsmuggle out 7,500-10,000 Jews to the forestsoGhettos established in 1941 and he was there since 1939 as leaderoHe was arrested and executed for collaborating with the undergroundChaim Rumkowski (Lodz Ghetto) developed a policy of “rescue through labor,” runningthe ghetto with an iron fistoBrutal leader, appeared to be a betrayer of the JewsoLed the last ghetto to be destroyedoProduced goods that Nazi’s needPartisans- independent gorilla fighting organizations that existed throughout the forests ofEastern Europe (Soviet Union supported this)Abba Kovner- resistance fighter and poetZionist youth leader from hashomer HatzairPlayed key role in founding of the United Partisan OrganizationCommander of resistance during liquidation of Vilna ghettoDirected escape of the Vilna underground into the forestsCommanded Jewish partisan unit in the Rudninkai ForestAfter the war, helped organize underground organizations helping survivors escapeEurope to PalestineHelped establish Nekama, a (failed) revenge operation against German people and the SSWarsaw Ghetto Uprising (April 19- May 16, 1943)First mass revolt in Nazi-occupied EuropeUprising breaks out in response to rumors that Germans planned to liquidate ghettoInvolved more than 2000 SS soldiers and police units under tank coverJws hid in bunkers, fighters fought from atticsAlthough Nazis subdued the ghetto within the first week, second stage of fighting lastedweeksPhase 3:The Coded Dispatch -- about the Final Solution
Why didn’t the Jews resist more? Why didn’t they fight?People were too broken and desperate to fightThey didn’t have a national organizationPeople were in denial of their fateThe real question is, isn’t it remarkable that anyone could resist?Chaim Kaplan is about the victim’s responseJews made sure life kept goingThey also did bad things in the ghettosNazi policy towards a variety of other groupsDegenerates- (mentally ill, developmentally delayed, physically disabled), Asocials- (unwantedelements of German society, gay men, prostitutes, alcoholics, etc.), Sinti and Roma- (Gypsies),Soviet POWs- (prisoners of war), Homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses- (small religious groupwho studied the Bible)Nazi “Euthanasia” Program