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2013 CISV Year of Human RightsBackground Reading1A Timeline of Human RightsCompiled by Diana Camacho3100-2850 BCMenes (pharaoh of Egypt) established codes of conduct for the Egyptian civilization.3000 BCSumerians develop Cuneiform writing2630 BCFirst pyramid constructed in Egypt; Imhotep is first known architect2575 - 2134 BCOld Kingdom of Egypt2350 BCUrukagina (governor) created a code against corruption seeking freedom andequality in Lagash, Mesopotamia. This is the first example of a legal code inrecorded history.2200 BCLegendary Xia Dynasty in China1792-1750 BCHammurabi (Babylonian King) state the first written law code: the Code ofHammurabi (282 laws with punishments, with "an eye for an eye, a tooth for atooth" principle).18th-15th Century BCMoses wrote The Five Books (The Torah) the first part of the Hebrew Bible. Also,Moses proclaimed the Ten Commandments -a code of conduct toward others-.100- or 800-500 BCAncient prose Upanishads (collection of texts that are the basis of the Hindureligion) are written. In them you can find the belief that individual actions have
2013 CISV Year of Human RightsBackground ReadingA Timeline of Human Rights2ongoing moral consequences.539 BCCyrus the Great (ruler of the Persian Empire) established reforms that are written inthe Cyrus Cylinder: protected religious freedom and diversity. The cylinder isconsidered a precursor of the human rights declaration.551-479 BCK'ung Fu Tzu orConfuciusestablishes the Confucianism. The highest virtue: "Jen" isthe principle "to love all men."509-44 BCRome Republic, Roman values emphasize selfless service to the community, individualhonour, the necessity of the law (they had a judicial justice), and shared power anddecision making. The Roman form of government and the Roman form of lawbecome the basis for many later European legal codes still in use today.479-431 BCA Golden Age takes place in Athens, under the leadership of Pericles. Athensexperimented with Democracy having direct participation of only free Athenian malecitizens in the making of laws in the assembly on the basis of majority rule.469-391 BCChinese philosopher Mo-Zi expands on Confucian principles and advances thephilosophy of "universal love" as a guiding principle of life.451-449 BCThe centrepiece of the constitution of the Roman Republic: The Twelve Tables arecreated to prevent public officials from adjudicating the law based on their ownpreferences.The Twelve Tables become such a symbol of Roman justice that children wererequired to memorize them.500 - 400 BCThe Four Vedas: The oldest scriptures of Hinduism are written. They establish aspiritual precedent found in later religions.269-231 BCEThe Edicts of Ashoka are a series of edicts made by the Emperor Ashoka of theMauryan dynasty (ancient India) throughout his empire, protecting the rights of the
2013 CISV Year of Human RightsBackground ReadingA Timeline of Human Rights3poor and vulnerable; they emphasize goodness, kindness and generosity. Theydescribe the first wide expansion of Buddhism.