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family relationship exam 3

family relationship exam 3 - Fertility and Family Planning...

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Fertility and Family Planning: 1. Fertility refers to actual reproduction ( as in “fertility rate”) Fecundity refers to the ability to reproduce ( infecundity= “sterility”) 2. 3 categories of why people have children: Biological predispositions Strong sex drive Experience kin relations as rewarding Status/we are socially and sexually competitive Social coercion Normative behavior and sanctions Rational Choice Costs and benefits of having children Desired family size and sequential decision-making 3. What determines fertility? Social, economic and proximate determinates Fertility Environmental factors =biological and behavioral The proximate determinants of fertility: Age of entry into sexual union/marriage (Behavioral) Onset of permanent sterility (Biological) Postpartum infecundability (biological) (breastfeeding) Sexual frequency: more frequent, greater likelihood of conception (Behavioral) Use and effectiveness of contraception (Behavioral) Spontaneous intrauterine mortality: miscarriage (Biological) Induced abortion (Behavioral) Social, Economic, and Environmental factors: Women’s status Education, traditional age at marriage, labor force participation (education increase, fertility decrease) Political climate and social policies Availability or child care, access to contraception and abortion, need for family labor. Cultural practices Preference for sons, family size norms Health Mortality rate, breastfeeding norms Theoretical: women can have 35 children in her lifetime (18-45 range) Behavioral factors further take the number of possible births down. 4. Total Fertility Rate: (TFR)
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a. The average # of children that would be born to a women during her lifetime (given the age-specific fertility rates of a particular year) b. A hypothetical estimate of ocmpleted fertility c. Replacement level fertility = 2.1 children 5. Replacement Fertility Level: 2.1 children. Number of children women need to have for another woman to come and replace her in the world. 6. Fertility Rates changing over time: 1940-1950: climbs from 2-3 1950-1960: climbs from 3-4 1960-1970: decreases from 4-2 1970-1980: decreases to 1.75 1980-1990: Increases from 1.75-2 1990-2001: stays at 2 7. Family sizes compared to family sizes in the 80’s: Now family sizes are smaller a. 0: 2004 greater percent b. 1: 2004 greater percent c. 2: 2004 greater percent d. 3: 1980 greater percent e. 4: 1980 greater percent f. 5+: 1980 greater percent 8. Fertility Rates and race/ethnicity: a. White and African American: 1.8-1.9 i. 20% child free (not childless) b. Asian: 1.9 i. 18% child free c. Hispanic: 2.3 i. 14% child free 9. Family Planning: a. Deciding whether and when to marry and to have children b. Conscious choice, rational action
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family relationship exam 3 - Fertility and Family Planning...

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