when cells reach equilibrium tha delta G is 0, no net
change, the cell will reach equilibrium when it dies, it doesn’t want this, wants to keep
them away from equilibrium.
How many products for every substrate left at equilibrium,
that’s the equilibrium constant.
Reactant used by enzyme is substrate.
converted into products.
: make a table, analogy: 6 apples to make apple juice, have ten apples,
think about juice as product, and how many apples left. Starting with x and have y it’ll be
x-y, so it’ll be x over x-y.
Point is to understand how an enzyme is working and how
effective it is.
How much product for reactant left.
The product always comes from
reactant, when its made you don’t have same amount of reactant left.
spontaneous reaction when bonds break it needs water.
water molecule to break down.
It’ll then become inorganic phosphate, with negative
oxygen or hydrogen, pick up OH-.
The negative charges makes it exergonic
Chemical bonds when bonds are broken energy is consumer when bonds
formed energy is released.
When ATP is broken were releasing free energy, different
from potential energy.
In vitro outside the cell at -7.3 kcal/mol.
Every muscle cell uses
10 million ATP per second.
Endergonic you need to put in energy, a little more than what it
takes, not equal.
It’s positive not going to happen, cell makes it two step process, and
then phosphate comes off.
Takes one step process and turns it into two step process.
Which of the following reaction will need ATP energy coupling to
A. +5.5 kcal/mol, needs ATP hydrolysis which is -7.3 which is just
a bit more than it needs.
Mostly proteins 99.9%, although same are made of RNA but not likely.
Focus on enzymes that are proteins.
Biological catalysts, catalyst is speeds up reaction,
lowers activation energy converts substrate to product but doesn’t get used up in reaction,
the substrate does.
Proteins utilize amino acids in their active sites to make temporary
bonds to their substrate and catalyze the reaction.
: which of the following does not contain enzyme?
a.perspiration: dead skin cells release enzyme