Unit II Study Guide: Mesopotamia and EgyptMesopotamia:Sumerian Civilizations:1)Fertile Crescent: This was an arc of land that curves from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean coast with good soil and fields. This is important, because it was the first area where the first civilizations developed. 2)Tigris and Euphrates rivers: These were two important rivers in Mesopotamia. They were important, because since they were a form of water civilizations grew near them. 3)Caravans: These are vehicles used to transport good to be traded or that have been bought. These are important, because it was a way for the different culturesto mingle and exchange ideas.4)Lapis Lazuli: This was a blue, precious stone prized by the Sumerian people. Thiswas important, because it showed the 5)Enlil: He was the head of the Sumerian gods who was believed to have caused a major flood. This is important, because it showed a lot about the Sumerians’ beliefs in religion. 6)The Epic of The Flood: This was a story about a flood similar to Noah and his ark.This is important, because it tells us about the literature of the Sumerians7)Ur: This was an important city that was home to the Sumerians. It was where most of the stories came from. This is important because Ur was the head of the other state in the city-states. 8)Ziggurat: This was a temple like structure that acted as the religious, social, trade, etc aspects of the Sumerians. This is important, because it allowed us to see how the Sumerians interacted with each other. 9)Sargon of Akkad: He was the Ruler of Akkad and conquered Sumer being the firstMesopotamian emperor.
10)Cuneiform Writing: This is a form of writing using wedge shaped marks. This is important, because it showed a progression from pictures to a language.11)City Walls/Mud Bricks/Tar: The city walls were walls built to protect people from invaders. Mud Bricks were the first bricks used to build houses. Tar was a substance used to waterproof materials.12)City-states: These are independent urban centers that controlled the surrounding land. This was important because they were the first political structure of the Mesopotamian Area.13)Dynasty: This was a transfer of leadership from within the family usually from father to eldest son. This was important, because it showed the importance of family power back then.14)Wheel: This was an invention introduced to the Mesopotamian region by the Hyksos. This was important because it allowed for faster transportation.