100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 14 out of 45 pages.
MPTM 680-01ICT4D: Information and Communication Technologies for DevelopmentM a r i a F . T r u j i l l o , P h D .
Teams or IndividualFinal Projects?Presentation is 15% Paper is 30%
Class 1 RecapGuns, Germs and Steel
Class 2•Kicking away the ladder•Out of poverty•Think like a freak
Why don’t developing countries develop?M a r i a F . T r u j i l l o , P h D .
Kicking away the ladder-picture
Kicking Away the Ladder (2002)Ha Joon Changtackles the doublestandards that deny ‘developingcountries’ the opportunitytoapply thesameinterventionistpolicies that, he argues all major‘developed countries’ used tobuild their wealth.Criticises the WTO, IMF and WorldBank for maintaining this line.
Relationships betweenNDC(Now Developed Countries)NIC(Newly Industrialized Countries)ITT(Industrial, Trade and Technology)IDPE(InternationalDevelopment PolicyEstablishment)Good Policies/Governance
Three objections to Chang’s argument1.This is how theworld works: the strongcall the shots.The golden rule: the one with the goldmakes the rules.Answer: We need newrules2.IDPE recommendswhat international investorswant.Follow the global norm or perish.Answer: Look at China.No democracy,hugeinvestment.Besides,countriesdon’tgrowdue to foreign investment.Local ownership ismoreimportant.3.The standardsfor institutionsare higher now, no sense in comparingtoday’sinstitutionsto100/150 yearoldinstitutionsAnswer: It took NDCsdecades,even generationsto establish certaininstitutions.
Definitions of Development (an intro)•Income•More than income (e.g., HDI)•Developmentusedto be about thetransformationofthe productive structure and the capabilities thatsupport it, and the resulting transformation ofsocialstructure(e.g., oil-rich countries, Germany after WWII)•Now, development is aboutpovertyreduction, provisionof basicneeds, individualbetterment, and thesustenanceof the existing production structure
Development without Development:the MDGs (189 gvts)•Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.•Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education.•Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women.•Goal 4: Reduce child mortality.•Goal 5: Improve maternal health.•Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases•Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.•Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development.
Development without Development:the MDGs (continued)•TargetsunderGoal 8•development of an ‘open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading system’•reduction or even writing-off of developing countryforeign debt•increase in foreign aid from rich countries, includingtrade-related technical assistance•provision of access to affordable essential drugs fordeveloping countries•the spread of new technologies, mainly information andcommunications technologies (ICT4D)
Development without Development:the MDGs (continued)•The pro-developmentaltradingregime basicallymeans anincreased access to rich country markets by developingcountries.