MPTM 680-01ICT4D: Information and Communication Technologies for DevelopmentM a r i a F . T r u j i l l o , P h D .
2Class 5The Digital DivideDoes the digital divide haveanything to do withprogressindevelopment?
4The Digital DivideDescribed in different ways
5Article based on dissertation•Written in 2003, focuses on the relation between the use of digitalICT, progress in development, economic growth and povertyreduction•Was a discoursein policy circles, yet very little empirical work hadbeen carried out to prove or disprove the natureof the relation.•50-60s Modernization developmenttheory -> Infrastructure•70s Human development•80s Washington consensus –> Shift from centralized to decentralized•A gap produced due to unequal capacity among countries toaccess,adaptandcreateknowledge via the use of digital information andcommunication technologies.
61997 Sample and Model•The developing world consisted of124countries (out of 174)collectively accounting for 78.39% of the world’s population.•More than 85.34% of the world’s population (more than 4.9 billionpeople) lived in developing countries, whereas only 14.66% lived inindustrialized countries.•The dissertation produced a quantitativemodel which explainedmore than 91% of the variability in national developmentfor 118countries in 1997 in terms of the nationalinfo tech infrastructure,and another quantitativemodel which explained more than 43% ofthechangesin development over the last decade for 120 countries interms of the national core computing and networking capacity.
7Research Strategy and Methodology•The research strategy and methodologycarried outto analyze the relationsbetweenthe global digitaldivideand national developmentprocessesincluded:•A progressive multistage strategy using of indexes createdby the use of factor analysis, and careful consideration ofthe assumptions of the regression model before itsapplication.
9Findings•Internet and personal computers made a differenceespecially inprogressin human development•Differences created by the global digital divide, in otherwords unequal country capacity in access, adaptation andcreation of knowledge via the use of digital information andcommunication technologies, are of two types:1.Differences inlevelsof development2.Differences inprogress(or declines) in development from 1990 to1997
10Major ConclusionA major conclusion is that the importance ofthe core national computing and networkinginfrastructure lies in its ability to explainprogressmuch better thananyother variable.