MPTM 680-01ICT4D: Information and Communication Technologies for DevelopmentM a r i a F . T r u j i l l o , P h D .
2The Fisherman Tale
3Class 4•Development studies•How do we measure progress in development?•Income•HDI
42016 Basic deprivations•One person inninein the world is hungry•One inthreeis malnourished•About 15 million girls a yearmarrybefore age 18(one every two seconds)•18,000 people a day die because ofair pollution•HIVinfects 2 million people a year•Every minute an average of 24 people aredisplacedfromtheir home
5Self actualizationEsteem (respect)Love (affection, belonging)SafetyHunger, thirst and sexual desireParentingMate RetentionMate AcquisitionStatus/EsteemAffiliationSelf ProtectionHunger, thirst and sexual desire
What is development?... also known as International DevelopmentI T a n d D e v e l o p m e n t
7Let’s agree on a definition•Long term view with emphasis on socio-economictransformation(for example ashift from agrarian economy to industrialeconomy)•Shorter horizon related topolicyobjectivesandperformanceindicators (such as growthof income per capita and poverty reduction)
8What is it?1950s and 60s: liberation of people1970 -90s: replaced by liberalizationof economies
9What is it?Practice of development agencies:Reducing povertyGoals (MDG or Agenda 2030)
11The main questions1.What is development?2.What is the purpose of developmentstudies?3.What can we ‘know’ in developmentstudies?4.What is the big picture in developmentstudies?5.What is ‘rigour’ in developmentstudies?6.How are research and practice linked indevelopmentstudies?7.What is the future for developingstudies?
12Three propositionsDevelopment is aprocess of changeDevelopment is policyrelated (MDGs)Ethnocentrict and ideologically loaded
13DevelopmentTheories•Structuralism•Structural aspects whichimpedethe economic growth ofdeveloping countries•Transformationof a country’s economyfromasubsistenceagriculture to a modern,urbanizedmanufacturing and serviceeconomy.•Policy prescriptions includemajor governmentinterventionin theeconomyto fuel the industrial sector, knownas importsubstitution industrialization (ISI).•Dependency•Dependency thinking starts fromthe notion that resources flowfromthe ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states to a ‘core’of wealthy countries, which leads toaccumulation of wealthinthe rich states at the expense of the poor states.•Modernization•The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial andwhich constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea isthat development assistance targeted at those particular aspectscan lead tomodernizationof 'traditional' or 'backward' societies.