`The Three-World Order (1940-1975)- WWII shatters the European-centered global order (weakening Europe, Japan, and unsettling empires)- The United States and its liberal-democratic allies, the first world) engage in a cold war with the Soviet Union and its communist allies, the second world)- Decolonized sates in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (the Third world) struggles to find a “third way”but find themselves caught between rival superpowersThe Three Leaders of the World War II Allies in 1945: - U.S. president Franklin Roosevelt: envisioned independent nation states protected by an international body, no interest in restoring the old European empiresAfter 1945, the U.S became the leader of the first world and the champion of capitalism anddemocracy enjoying unprecedented prosperity - Great Britain Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, resisted decolonization of the British Empire - Soviet Union premier, Joseph Stalin, sought international league and decolonization of nations to weaken Germany and to further secure Soviet influence in Eastern EuropeSoviet Union became a leader of the communist “second world”, trumpeted socialism’s accomplishments The U.S. and the S.U engaged in a ideological rivalry, known as the Cold War The cold war (1945–1990): Ideological conflict in which the Soviet Union and eastern Europe opposed the United States and western Europe with no direct military conflicts - formerly colonized and semi-colonized Western intellectuals and Asian and African leaders embraced the “third world”- Germany, Italy, Japan were losing the war<World War II and Its Aftermath>The causes: During the late 1930s, German and Japanese became colonial powers baed on dictatorships with their aggressive ambitions, radical theories against France, Britain, the S.U, and eventually the United StatesWWII (September 1939- 1945): 1. Nazi Germany’s invasion of Poland2. Nazi troops overran Poland, France, Norway, Denmark, Luxembourg, Begium, and Holland and controlled virtually all of Europe Only Britain escaped Axis control ( Germany, Austria, Italy, Libia) British and French decisions to oppose it3. In 1941, the German army broke a nonaggression pact and invaded the Soviet Union and reached the outskirts of Moscow- Special troops began killing communists and Jewish civilians, interring them into a series of killing centers, exterminating 6 millions of Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, communist, and slavs with the arsenic-based poison gas Zyklon B– “the Holocaust”4.In 1942 -1943, after the battles of Stalingrad and Kurk, the German army and its allied suffered due to the tide against the Germans and their collaborators5. On June 6, 1944, western Allied forces in Normandy landed 6. On April 30, 1945, Hitler committed suicide, and Germany surrendererJapan’s efforts to expand: - in the 1930s, Japanese already took over Asia (Manchuria, China, Korea), and broke out the war in Europe for further expansion - In 1941, Japanese occupied French Indochina, and demanded the Dutch East Indies for oil and ruber,and eventually the U.S.