Module 2 Notes.docx - Module 2 Notes From Colonies to...

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Module 2 Notes: From Colonies to Independent Nations Great Britain and Its Colonies English colonization of the New World began in the 17 th century (1600s). The Virginia Company settled in Jamestown in 1607. First Puritan settlers the Pilgrims settled in Plymouth in 1620 12 of the 13 colonies that would become the US expect Georgia because it was founded and settled. England experienced growing pains, internal strife, and political changes. Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 and her cousin James who was the king of Scotland took the throne and that made him the King of England and Scotland. In England, the parliament had grown strong enough to block the absolute will of kings. Stuarts found themselves increasingly at odds with English Parliament over what the king could and could not do. In the 1640s and 1650s led to a civil wat between those who supported the monarchy and those whose who supported parliament. Parliament dissolved the monarchy and pronounced it England commonwealth. Puritan by the name of Oliver Cromwell worked his way to the head of Parliament and had himself named "Lord Protector" of the English Commonwealth. From 1651-1658, Cromwell ruled as, essentially, an absolute monarch. Cromwell's rule proved so unpopular that, upon his death, Parliament invited Charles II, the grandson of James I and a Stuart, to become king. With the monarchy restored, Parliament hoped that they could turn back the clock and could overlook the problems that led to the English Civil War in the first place. They could not. Watch the video below on how the tensions within the restored monarchy led to the England's Glorious Revolution in 1689.
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The English Civil War, the Restoration (of the monarchy), and the Glorious Revolution indicated strengthened the English resolve for a constitutional government that split power between Parliament and the King. Politics in Great Britain (as it would become in 1707 after the Acts of Union combined England and Scotland into one kingdom) then centered around where ultimate authority lay: with the king or the Parliament. The group that supported monarchical authority was the Tories while their opponent were the Whigs, who supported Parliamentary authority. The Whig vision of politics and law would have a direct effect on the American colonists. Economics & Identity in the Early 18 th Century Whiggish ideas about widespread property ownership, frequent election, Parliamentary authority, and the importance of representation came to the colonies in the early-to-mid 18th century (1700s). The British colonies of the 17th century was all very different. There were many regional similarities, but even then, from colony to colony there were important and fundamental differences.
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