Pharmacotherapy for Respiratory DisordersChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents with symptoms of emphysema; chronic bronchitis; and asthma (CDC, 2017). An estimated 32 million United States are affected by COPD, and it is the third leading cause of death this country (Medscape, n.d.). A change in the patient’s baseline level of dyspnea, wheezing, cough and/or sputum beyond day-to-day variability are a cause for further evaluation. Exacerbations are triggered by infections and non-infectious etiologies.Chronic bronchitis is defined clinically as the presence of a cough and sputum productionfor at least three months during each of 2 consecutive years with (other causes of a cough being excluded). Emphysema is defined pathologically as the destruction of the gas exchange surface
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- Fall '13
- Nurs 6521 (Ladd & Hoyt, 2016)