• Read the editorial introduction on pages 1-8. • Review and answer the nineteen questions on pages 99-100 of the book. Several of these questions, slightly modified, will appear on the test. Know the dates of the WWI, WWII, and the Cold War. WWI: July 28, 1914 – November 11, 1918 WWII: September 1, 1939 – September 2, 1945 Cold War: 1947 – 1991 Know the key theoretical points of Realism, Liberalism, and Constructivism. Pg. 2 ● Realism- Anarchy is the natural state of affairs among states. Sovereign states will act in their own self-interest to maximize their power. To avoid war, states balance off one another, use diplomacy, and build alliances. An international order emerges from their actions. Within that order, states seek greater security for themselves. Realism focuses on the power of states (sovereign countries), their interests, and their search for security. ● Liberalism- International anarchy does not necessarily lead to conflicts and wars. It may result in cooperation among states. Liberalism emphasizes international collaboration, economic ties, international law, and shared values. It also sees international organizations and non-state actors as influencing state choices and policies. ● Constructivism- State’s actions and policies are based on how leaders, bureaucracies, and societies interpret or construct the information available to them. Constructivism says that power, anarchy, and security are socially created within a cultural process where people’s interests and identities are formed. What is (or who is) “Liberal Leviathan”? The United States is the liberal leviathan. G. John Ikenberry wrote the book liberal Leviathan. (Pg. 7) The leviathan is the monster fish that swallowed Jonah. Saying that america is the liberal leviathan, is saying that it's the big power that is promoting liberalism.The idea is that the strong country would guarantee that the rest of the world, and above all other economically powerful states, would continue to abide by the rules of international cooperation developed predominantly by the West. What is the key idea of The Clash of Civilizations? The future divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations (Cultural entities). 7 or 8 major civilizations (Western, Hindu, Confucian, japanese, Islamic, Slavo-Orthodox, Latin American and African) are different from each other in terms of language, history, culture, and tradition, and most importantly religion.
According to The Clash of Civilizations, which new military alliance should be perceived as most dangerous to the West? A Confucian-Islamic alliance (p.17) Huntington offered six reasons why civilizations would clash. Know them. Pg. 12 1. Differences among civilizations are not only real, they are basic (history, language, culture, tradition, and religion).
- Summer '19