chap19 notes.pdf - Chapter 19 The French Revolution and...

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Chapter 19 - The French Revolution and Napoleon. (1789-1815).(1) On the Eve of Revolution.(2) Creating a New France.(3) Radical Days.(4) The Age of Napoleon Begins.(5) The End of An Era.Bastille.Terror.Napoleon.Waterloo.________________________________________________________________1789.1793.1804.1815.(1) On the Eve of Revolution.Setting the Scene.July 14, 1789.Mob in Paris storms Bastille. (Frees sevenprisoners). The French Revolution is started!! Louis XV (1710-74) succeeds great-grandfather, Louis XIV, at age of 5.France under Louis XV leads Europe: culture, manners (clothes), cooking.But France has a growing crisis by mid-1770s: its economy is in trouble.The Old Regime.The king was an absolute monarch (like Louis XIV) in the old regime. Louis XIV successors lack his ability to govern but they protected power.French people were in threeestates (classes): clergy, nobility, commoners.First Estate. Clergy.Higher clergy, who were nobles.Parish priests, who were commoners.Clergy collected a tithe (tax) to manage churches, run schools, and keep birth and death records.*Church owns vast amounts of property on which it pays notaxes.Second Estate. Nobles.Nobility is less than 2% population.Army officers. High Clergy. * Not all nobles were wealthy.Rising prices reduced income. Peasants pay feudal tax.Wealthy "nobles of the robe" were judges in the parlements. (‘parle’), or high courts.Third Estate. Middle Class.Diverse group.Vast majority. 98% of population. Bourgeoisie(middle class). Peasants. City workers.bourgeoisie are all taxpayers: merchants, manufacturers, lawyers, doctors, storekeepers, artisans.
Discontent.Peasantspay heavy taxes, tithe to church, and rents to landlords (but could not hunt for game on the land for themselves).City workersare servants, apprentices, day laborers facing inflation on wage. Economic Troubles.1770s-1780s. The most serious economic problem facing France in was debt owed to bankers. Deficitspending is when a government spends more than it takes in (taxes). Louis XIV has wars. Louis XV and Louis XVI borrow for Versailles and the war in America. Failure at Reform.1774.Louis XVI (1754-93) comes to throne. He is 20 years old.He sees the need for economic reform.Married at 16 to Marie Antoinette of Austria. To cement alliance with Holy Roman Empire.For a time, popular: handsome, healthy, moral, fond of ‘manly’ exercise. Robert Turgot (1727-81) was his finance minister for only 20 months.Turgot had wide newreforms:(1) Control spending at Versailles.(2) Remove internal custom duties on food (grain).(3) Try to limit power of guilds.(4) Tax the nobles. Turgot is attacked, and axed.1786.Bankers refuse to lend more money to French treasury.1787-1788.Poor harvests caused bread shortages across FranceLouis goes to Parlement of Paris to try to get a new tax law, who said no!In the fall of 1788 Louis XVI ‘boldly’ summons Estates-General to meet in May 1789.The Tiers-Etats (Third Estate) instead forms National Assembly.

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