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CHLH 100 – week 4,5,6.docx - CHLH 100 WEEK 4 Lesson 1 Basic...

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CHLH 100 – WEEK 4Lesson 1 – Basic Nutrition ConceptsLesson 1.1Consumer Health:The fundamental principles of healthy eating are moderation, variety,and balanceA sensible diet based on Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the USAFood Guidance System will provide adequate amounts of essentialnutrients for most peopleFood product labels must disclose the amounts of fat and several othersignificant nutrientsConsumers seeking nutrition advice could choose their sourcescarefullyMajor Food Components:ProteinsCarbohydratesDietary fiberFat (lipids)VitaminsMineralsProteins:Main structural componentMakes bone, connective tissue, muscle, skin, hair, and cell membranesAlso function as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, hemoglobinBroken down into amino acids for absorption and reassembled asneeded or used for energyCarbohydrates:Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygenSource of energy and half of calories consumed in the averageAmerican’s dietTwo types: starches (complex) and sugars (simple)Starches found in breads, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes, and othervegetablesCarbs turns into glucose – extra glucose stored as fat; not enough, thebody breaks down fat and proteins for energyDietary Fiber (Ballaststoffe):Plant components resistant to digestion by human gastrointestinalsecretionsAll foods of vegetable origin contain fiberWhole grain foods are a major source of fiberHard to specify positive effects, but clearly beneficial for cholesterollevels
Recommended 20-35 grams of fiber a dayFat (Lipids):Triglycerides (fats&oils), phospholipids (lecithin), and sterols (includingcholesterol)Fat are lipids solid at room temperature, oil are lipids liquid at roomtemperatureFats commonly found in food are triglycerides – vary based onsaturation with hydrogen:a.Saturated fats: filled to capacity with hydrogenb.Monounsaturated fats: room for 2 hydrogen atomsc.Polyunsaturated fats: room for 4 or more H atomsVitamins:Organic (carbon-containing) substances required in tiny amounts forvarious body functions13 known vitamins for humansmust be acquired through food since the body does not produce themvitamin deficiency in America is rare since vitamins are found in manyfoods naturally and through fortificationminerals:inorganic compounds needed in relatively small amountshelps regulate body functionsaids in growth and maintenance of body tissuescatalyst for release of energy17 essential mineralsHuman Nutrient Needs:Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA):a.Developed by the U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services and theU.S. Dept of Agriculture (USDA)b.Provides recommendations based on current scientific knowledgeaboutdietary intake and exercisec.Reviewed every 5 years for updatesHuman Nutrient Needs:Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)a.Nutrient reference values for assessing and planning dietsb.

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