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bio_nya_1_A16.docx - bio nya 1 A16 BIOLOGY NYA Autumn 2016...

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bio nya 1 A16 BIOLOGY NYA Autumn 2016 figures from Campbell's Biology 9th edn 1
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bio nya 1 A16 Chapter 1: properties of life 1. order 2. reproduction 3. growth & development 4. energy utilization: organisms take in energy (food) and transform the energy to do work 5. homeostasis: regulation of the internal environment 6. evolutionary adaption: survival of the fittest 7. response to the environment 2
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bio nya 1 A16 The flow of energy photosynthesis : transformation of solar E to chemical E (glucose) - occurs in plants, algae and some bacteria - in the chloroplast within the cell CO 2 + H 2 O + solar E C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) + O 2 cellular respiration : breaks down food - releases chemical E in the form of ATP - occurs in all organisms, including plants - in the mitochondria within the cell Glucose + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP 5
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bio nya 1 A16 ATP (adenosine triphosphate) stores E for: 1) cellular work (muscular contraction, chromosomal movements during cell division) 2) transportation (pumping molecules across membranes) 3) chemical reactions 6
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bio nya 1 A16 ATP consists of 3 components 1) a nitrogenous base called adenine 2) a 5-carbon sugar called ribose 3) three phosphate groups which are negatively charged breaking down ATP releases energy - the process is called hydrolysis because water is involved in breaking the bonds 7
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bio nya 1 A16 ATP is a renewable resource - when ATP is broken down E is released and this can be used by the cell for a process that requires E - when the cell carries out a reaction that releases E, this E can be used to build ATP from its components - note that when ATP breaks down, it releases a phosphate group, called inorganic phosphate (P i ). The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) 9
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bio nya 1 A16 catabolism: The process involving a series of degradative chemical reactions that break down complex molecules into smaller units, usually releasing E in the process. - catabolic processes are exergonic anabolism : The process involving a sequence of chemical reactions that constructs or synthesizes molecules from smaller units, usually requiring input of E ( ATP ) in the process . - anabolic processes are endergonic 10
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bio nya 1 A16 Organisms are classified based on how they obtain their energy : autotrophs (photosynthetic) - do not consume other organisms - make their own organic molecules by photosynthesis - plants, some bacteria and algae heterotrophs - cannot make their own food - must consume other organisms - animals 11
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bio nya 1 A16 chapter 3: water - water is a polar molecule (has unequal charge distribution) - oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen - shared electrons spend more time around oxygen than around hydrogen - H-bonds: H + attracted to O - (not real charges) 13
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bio nya 1 A16 - each water molecule can form a maximum of 4 H-bonds - hydrogen bonds are not covalent (do not involve the sharing of electrons) - hydrogen bonds are attractive forces Notes about bonding - covalent bonding occurs when 2 atoms share electrons 14
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