History Final.pdf - James Watt Who the fuck he...

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James Watt Who the fuck he was: (1736-1819) In 1763 Watt was called on to repair a Newcomen engine being used in a physical course he realized that the engine was wasting a lot of energy and it could be reduced by adding a separate condenser. This invention was patented in 1769, greatly increased the efficiency of the steam engine Through trial and error he was able to create an effective, practical, and commercial use for the steam engine The coal-burning steam engine of Watt and his followers was the Industrial Revolution's most fundamental advance in technology For the first time in history, humanity had, at least for a few generations, almost unlimited power at its disposal Allowed inventors and engineers to be able to devise and implement all kinds of power equipment to aid people in their work The steam-power plant began to replace waterpower in cotton-spinning factories during the 1780s, contributing greatly to the industrial rise Robert Owen (1771-1858) Successful manufacturer in Scotland Testified in 1816 on the harsh labor in factories Argued that hiring children is wrong. No fucking shit With his testimony and others the Factory Act of 1833 from 1802 and 1833 was put in place which limited the workdays of children and set a minimum hygiene and safety requirement The Factory Act installed a system of full-time inspectors to enforce the prisons of previous acts. Kids 9-13 could work a max of 8 hrs, 14-18 up to 12 hrs, under 9 could not be employed After 1815 he experimented with cooperative and socialist communities, including one at New Harmony, Indiana In 1834 he was involved in the organization of one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions, the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union When Owen’s and others schemes collapsed, the British labor movement moved once again after 1851 in the direction of craft unions. The most famous of these was the Amalgamated Society of Engineers, which represented skilled machinists. These unions won real benefits for members by fairly conservative means and thus became an accepted part of the industrial scene
After the collapse of Owen’s national trade union, many working people went into the Chartist movement, which sought political democracy. The key Chartist demand-that all men be given the right to vote Basically he and his organization intended to establish model communities that would usher in a new age of happiness and equality Founded “utopian socialism” Congress of Vienna September 1814 to June 1815 Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain (the Quadruple Alliance) Big question: How could they construct a lasting settlement that would not sow the seed for another war?

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