13_16NOV2017_Metabolism and Energy Balance.pptx

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Integrative Physiology Metabolism & Energy Balance 11:067:300 (Bello)
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Outline Appetite and satiety Energy balance Metabolism Homeostatic control of metabolism Regulation of body temperature
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Appetite and Satiety Food intake is carefully controlled Two competing behavioral states Appetite (or hunger) = desire for food Satiety = sense of fullness (or satisfaction) Hypothalamus contains two key control centers Feeding center Satiety center
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Reasons to Eat… Depends?
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Reasons to Eat… Depends?
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Four Types of Input to the Hypothalamus Neural input from the cerebral cortex Neural input from the limbic system Peptide hormones from the GI tract Adipocytokines from adipose tissue
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Two Theories for Regulation of Food Intake Glucostatic theory Theory proposes that blood glucose levels ultimately control the feeding and satiety centers Lipostatic theory Theory proposes that the level of body fat regulates the feeding and satiety centers Recent discovery of several peptides (especially leptin and neuropeptide Y) seems to support this theory
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Figure 22-1 Peptides Regulate of Feeding
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Table 22-1
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Energy Balance - The Key to Weight Control Energy input = energy output Energy output = work heat Three categories of work done by our cells Membrane transport Mechanical work Chemical work = building molecules, including synthesis of energy storage molecules Short-term energy storage (ATP) Long-term energy storage (glycogen, fat)
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Energy Balance Methods for measuring energy use Direct calorimetry Measures the energy content of food Indirect calorimetry Estimates metabolic rate as a measure of energy use Oxygen consumption Carbon dioxide production Ratio of CO 2 to O 2 (RQ or RER)
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Metabolic Rate Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is most common measure of metabolic rate Six factors affecting metabolic rate 1 - Age and gender 2 - Amount of lean muscle mass 3 - Activity level 4 - Energy intake (diet) 5 - Hormones 6 - Genetics Only energy intake and level of physical activity can be voluntarily changed
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Two Chemical Forms of Energy Storage Glycogen (highly branched polymer of glucose) Stored glycogen binds water Liver glycogen is used to regulate blood glucose Muscle glycogen is used to power muscle contraction Fat (triglycerides) Fats have higher energy content per gram Little water is required for fat storage Energy in fats is harder and slower to access
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Metabolism Metabolism is all of the chemical reactions in the body 1 - Extract energy from nutrients 2 - Use energy for work and synthesis 3 - Store excess energy Two types of metabolic pathways Anabolic pathways build large molecules Catabolic pathways break down large molecules Metabolism can be divided into two states Absorptive (“fed”) state is anabolic Post-absorptive (“fasted”) state is catabolic
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Metabolic Fates and Nutrient Pools
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