Wk 6 ch 7 outline.docx

Wk 6 ch 7 outline.docx - WHAT ARE POLITICAL PARTIES AND...

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WHAT ARE POLITICAL PARTIES AND WHERE DID TODAY'S PARTIES COME FROM? The evolution of American political parties: In all, there have been six party systems in American history, each separated by periods of realignment. The First Party System, 1789–1828: Political parties formed soon after the founding of the United States. The first political parties were the Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans. Federalists favored a strong central government and a national bank, while Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans opposed these positions in favor of concentrating power at the state level. These political parties differed from the modern party system in that few citizens thought of themselves as party members, and candidates for office did not campaign as representatives of a political party. The Second Party System, 1829–1856 The Federalist Party disintegrated as its members were defeated in re-election bids or switched parties. After a brief period as the only major political party, the Democratic-Republicans became the Democratic Party, the ancestor of the modern-day organization. Meanwhile, another new party, the Whigs, emerged. The new Democratic Party embodied two important innovations: 1. It cultivated electoral support as a way of strengthening the party's hold on power in Washington. The party built organizations at the state and local level to mobilize citizens to support the party's candidates. This innovation became known as the party principle . These developments gave way to the first party in the electorate. 2. In addition, the Democrats developed the spoils system. o The Third-Party System, 1857–1892 The issues of slavery split the second party system. Antislavery Whigs left the party and formed a new organization, the Republican Party, which also attracted antislavery Democrats. Meanwhile, the Democratic Party became the party of the South, and the party defending slavery. The demise of the
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