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In chapter 10 Brown et.al. refer to a number of "debates" revolving around recent developments in Criminological theory. Pick any two of these new developments to consider for this essay. How could anyone object to these new theoretical perspectives? What are those debates about and what are the policy implications of these debates? Choose one of the authors featured in either Issue 16 or 18 of Hickey's book and indicate how you think that author would feel about these two theories and their policy implications. Why?Two recent developments in criminological theory in which I have chosen to write about in this essay are the concepts of the criminal career debate and development/life course criminology. First, in the criminal career debate, this relatively heated controversy in criminology concerns whether criminals comprise a distinctive group within the general population. The criminal careers paradigm emphasizes a potential heterogeneity of offending groups in the general population that can lead to a distinction between incidence and prevalence of criminal offending. It states that criminals are a distinctive group with a constant high rate of offending. Proponents of the criminal career concept maintain that individuals can be dichotomized into active offenders and non offenders. Critics, however, suggest that this is an artificial and erroneous distinction. They contend that humans possess different levels of “crime proneness” or varying propensities for crime. This debate sparked major policy ramifications such as the “three strikes”statutes enacted during the 1990s to underscore its importance. Severalpoliticians tried to be the “tough guy” on crime, for example, President Clinton recommended the hiring of 100,000 more police officers. He also promoted an incapacitation model to lock up any person for life who was convicted of a third federal felony. William B. Mateja, one of the authors featured in Issue 16 of Hickey’s book would indicate that yes, the “three strikes” sentencing laws and other “get tough” approaches do really work. Majeta contends that the current 30 year low in violent crime is not by accident. Reducing crime means reducing the number of criminals on the streets, which requires consistent and tough penalties that
incapacitate criminals who are dangerous and deter those who are considering involvement in thecommission of a crime.The purpose of developmental/life-course criminology seeks to advance knowledge and understanding of the developmental dimensions of offenders across their life. The focus is to study the development and dynamics of problem behaviors and offending with age. The theory establishes the connection between a pattern of life events and the actions that humans performs. The debate to come out of this is that, while psychologists have embraced the developmental perspective, criminologists have been reserved in studying criminal behavior from a life-course perspective. Criminologists have traditionally believed in the stability of personality over time