chapter 6 - intro to psych notes.docx

chapter 6 - intro to psych notes.docx - Intro to Psychology...

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Intro to Psychology Chapter 6 Memory is an active system that receives information from the sense, puts that information into a usable form, organizes it and stores it away, then retrieves it from storage. There are several different models of how memory works, all of them involves the same 3 processes: 1. Getting the information into the memory system 2. Storing it there 3. Getting it back out Putting it in – Encoding The first stage is getting sensory information into a form than the brain can use in a process called encoding. For example, when people hear a sound, their ears turn the vibrations in the air into neural messages from the auditory nerve ( transduction ), which makes it possible for the brain to understand that sound. Encoding is accomplished differently in the 3 memory storage systems. In one, it may involve rehearsing information over and over to keep it in memory, whereas in another system encoding involves elaborating on the meaning of information. Encoding, primarily in auditory form and limited to about 3 to 5 items Keeping it in – Storage The next step is to hold on to the information for some period of time in a process called storage. The period will vary depending on the storage system used. In one system people hold on to information just long enough to work with it, and in another, people will hold onto it more or less permanently. Getting it out – Retrieval The biggest problem that most people have is retrieval , getting the information that they know they have, out of storage. Information-Processing Model This is the model that many researchers feel is the most comprehensive and has perhaps been the most influential over the last few decades. This approach focuses on the way information is handled, or processed, through three different systems of memory. The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are a part of this model. Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Model In this model, memory is proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections. Simultaneous Levels-of-Processing Model In this model, it assumes that information that is more “deeply processed” or processed according to meaning rather than just the sound of physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time.
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Each of these models can be used to explain some, if not all, research findings about memory. Whether
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