Tutorial6 (1).pdf - Hoard A Scalable Memory Allocator for...

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Hoard: A Scalable Memory Allocator for Multithreaded Applications Berger * , McKinley + , Blumofe * , Wilson * * UT Austin, + Massachusetts ASPLOS 2000
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Dynamic Memory Allocation Highly parallel applications are common e.g., databases, web servers, assignment 2 Dynamic memory allocation is ubiquitous malloc, free, new, delete, etc. Serial memory allocators are inadequate Sufficient for correctness Do not scale for multithreaded applications Existing concurrent allocators do not meet requirements
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Parallel Allocator Requirements Speed As fast as a serial allocator on a single-processor system Scalability Performance scales linearly with number of processors False sharing avoidance Does not introduce false sharing of cache lines Low fragmentation Keep (OS Allocated Mem / App. Allocated Mem) low How does fragmentation affect performance?
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Parallel Allocator Requirements Speed As fast as a serial allocator on a single-processor system Scalability Performance scales linearly with number of processors False sharing avoidance Does not introduce false sharing of cache lines Low fragmentation Keep (OS Allocated Mem / App. Allocated Mem) low Fragmentation affects performance: Locality & Swapping
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False Sharing Multiple processors share bytes on the same cache line without sharing bytes CPU 1 uses int @ 0x1000 and CPU 2 uses 0x1004 Program induced: data passed between threads Allocator induced: Active – malloc returns heap objects on same cache line to different threads Passive – free allows a future malloc to produce false sharing
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