CHEM NOTES FROM THE BOOK.pdf - CHEM NOTES FROM THE BOOK 1.1-1.2 1.1 HOW AND WHY Macroscopic large scale phenomena particulate small scale phenomena 1.2


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CHEM NOTES FROM THE BOOK 1.1-1.2 1.1 HOW AND WHY Macroscopic - large scale phenomena particulate- small scale phenomena 1.2 MACROSCOPIC AND PARTICULATE VIEWS OF MATTER Mass vs matter-- mass= quantity of matter, which (matter) is stuff, characterized by anything and everything in the universe. Substance/ pure substance - matter of a constant composition; is not broken down to smaller, simpler matter Ex. pure water 1. elements - pure substance 2. Compounds- made up elements that can be broken up, but only by a chemical reaction Physical process- transformation of matter that does not alter chemical identity, merely physical state Ex- crumbling paper (not including the addition of oils from handling . Mixture- a combo of pure substances that retain their chemical identities and can be separated by a physical process. 1. Homogenous mixture- contents making up mixture are uniformly distributed Also called solutions 2. Heterogenous mixture- NOT uniformly distributed mixtures ** Chemical formulas do not tell us how chemicals are bonded, but STRUCTURAL FORMULAS DO Uses straight lines to show the way chemicals bond, within a molecule Not the complete story, because this is two dimensional
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MOLECULAR MODELS -3D representation of molecule SPACE FILLING MODELS ^^ Spheres are drawn to scale Atoms touch as they do irl Downside- Angle of bonds is difficult to discern IONS: Compounds that are NOT MOLECULAR Electrically charged particles (ions) Cations= (+) Anions = (-) 1.3 MIXTURES AND HOW TO SEPARATE THEM Volatilities- how easily components of a mixture can be converted from a liquid to a gas EX- distilment of water (aq) → aqueous solution= can be dissolved in water and were ions 1.4 A FRAMEWORK FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS 1. organize/collect 2. Analyze 3. Solve 4. Think about it (make sure it’s right, dawg) 1.5 PROPERTIES OF MATTER Intensive properties- a property that is independent of the amount of substance present Ex- colour Extensive properties- property that varies with the quantity of substance present Ex- length, width, size, weight, mass
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Physical properties- properties of a pure substance that can be observed or measured w/ o changing it into another substance
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