Exam 2 Notes.docx - NOTES 9-22 Male Reproductive Tract...

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NOTES 9-22 Male Reproductive Tract Testis (singular)\testes (plural)\testical (paired) o 2 functions Produce Male Gametes (sperm cell) Contribute ½ genetic compliment Capable of motility One of smallest cells in body Live in male reproductive tract o Mammals 12-48 hours o Birds up to 80 days Signs of “maleness” o Aggressiveness/Attitude o Social order/Libido o Size o Muscularity/leanness o Color- brightness o Testes o Neck/head o Facial hair o Some urinary marking o Boar taint o Rounded foot shape as opposed to pointed Production of Androgens or Male Hormones (Testosterone) Causes secondary sex characteristics Causes libido Causes undesirable behavior Epididymis Found on surface of testes
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Passageway and storage of site for sperm Maturation- bump or lump on testes Scrotum Layer of skin with nervous and muscular control Three primary functions o Carry testes outside body cavity allowing spermatogenesis o Regulates temperature of testes o Protects testes Cryptorchid o Hidden testis Bilateral: sterile Unilateral: fertile Inbody testosterone Outbody sperm Monorchid o Ridging or ridgeling – one testis hidden In order for proper spermatogenesis- certain temperature needed Castration: removal of gonad In male, if testis removed early in life, no development of secondary sexual characteristics If testes removed late – stag Specie Intact Castrated Cattle Bull Steer Sheep Ram Wether Goat Buck Wether Hog Boar Barrow Horse Stallion/Stud Geldings Chicken Cock Capon (rare) Vas deferens: passage into body cavity Accessory glands o Located approximate area where vas deferens joins urethra o 3 or 4 depending on specie Ampulla – storage for sperm Seminal vesicle Prostate Cowpers (bulbourethral glands) o Produce secretions which do the following Cleanse urethra Provides carrier for sperm volume requirement for some species
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Nourish sperm Activate sperm Combination of accessory glad fluids and sperm cell is semen Penis: copulatory organ of male o Glans: sensitive portion of penis that is stimulated, causing release of semen o Ejaculation: release of semen o Ejaculate: semen that is released zygote: union of genetic material embryo: when young takes form pregnancy: time from conception/implantation to birthing o bred o gravid o in calf, in foal, ect. o Non pregnant – open NOTES 9-25 Open = non-pregnant Sperm reach egg 1 sperm head penetrates outside of egg nuclei fuse together cells begin to divide Gestation period of pregnancy Parturition: act of giving birth Specie Gestation length Act of birthing Cow 283 days Calving Mare 340 days Foaling Sow 114 days Farrowing Ewe 143 days Lambing Goat 150 days Kidding Dog 62-65 days Whelping Cat 62-65 days Queening *these numbers are averages-actual may vary by a few days Control of Estrous Cycle Why?
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