chp24slides.pdf - BIOLOGY Chapter 24 FUNGI PowerPoint Image...

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10/15/2017 1 BIOLOGY Chapter 24 FUNGI PowerPoint Image Slideshow 24 FUNGI 24.1: Characteristics of Fungi 24.2: Classifications of Fungi 24.3: Ecology of Fungi 24.4: Fungal Parasites and Pathogens 24.5: Importance of Fungi in Human Life 24.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI Main Concepts: List the characteristics of fungi Describe hyphae and mycelium Describe the mode of nutrition of fungi Overview of sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi 24.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI Mycology – the study of fungus.. What’s that? More closely related to animals than plants Eukaryotes Membrane bound nucleus DNA wrapped around histone proteins Mitochondria No chloroplasts Heterotrophs Usually non-motile (flagella on some gametes) Thick cell walls (like plants) Contain CHITIN (strength, in insect exoskeletons) 24.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI How many cells? Unicellular (usually called yeasts) Unicellular/multicellular depending on conditions Multicellular (most) Vegetative stage hyphae – thread like structure Mycelium – mass of hyphae Often underground in soil (or on surface, in liquid, on living tissue) Reproductive stage More “showy”; mushrooms and such Candida albicans is a yeast cell and the agent of candidiasis and thrush 24.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI Hyphae Most - Separate cells separated by septa Or - Large cells with many nuclei (bread molds) Fungal hyphae may be (a) septated or (b) coenocytic (coeno- = “common”; -cytic = “cell”) with many nuclei present in a single hypha. A bright field light micrograph of (c) Phialophora richardsiae shows septa that divide the hyphae. (credit c: modification of work by Dr. Lucille Georg, CDC; scale-bar data from Matt Russell)
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10/15/2017 2 24.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI Nutrition and Metabolism All heterotrophs! Must take in organic compounds as energy source DIGEST (exoenzymes secreted) before they INGEST (take smaller molecules into hyphae) Use food as energy source Obligate aerobes (need oxygen, cellular respiration) Obligate anaerobes (oxygen kills them) Chytridiomycota – inside cow stomach Facultative anaerobes (can grow wo oxygen, grow better with it) Yeast (fermentation) Excess Food converted and stored as glycogen (like animals) not starch (like plants) 24.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI Nutrition and Metabolism All heterotrophs… what are they DIGESTING and then INGESTING? Mostly saprobes – dead organic matter (mainly plants) Some parasitic – infect living plants or animals Dutch Elm Disease (plants) Athlete’s foot, thrush (humans) Predation – nitrogen poor environments (like plants) Arthrobotrys fungi trap nematode worms using constrincting rings of hyphae Penetrate prey or hosts with haustoria - specialized hyphae that penetrates prey or host organisms in many fungi 24.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI Reproduction Sexually and/or asexually In both: SPORES are a COMMON MECHANISM
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