Ch 33-35.pdf - 33(ANIMAL BODY BASIC FORM/FUNCTION...

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11/21/2017 1 33 (ANIMAL BODY BASIC FORM/FUNCTION), 34 (DIGESTIVE SYSTEM), 35 (NERVOUS SYSTEM 33.1 animal form and function 33.2 animal primary tissues 33.3 homeostasis 34.1 digestive systems 34.3 digestive system processes 35.1 neurons and glial cells 33.1 ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION Main points: Describe the various types of body plans that occur in animals Describe limits on animal size and shape Relate bioenergetics to body size, levels of activity, and the environment 33.1 - DESCRIBE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF BODY PLANS THAT OCCUR IN ANIMALS Asymmetry, radial symmetry, or bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry: Sagittal plane (R/L) Frontal plane (dorsal/ventral) Transverse plane (anterior/posterio r) Cross sections on transverse 33.1 - DESCRIBE LIMITS ON ANIMAL SHAPE Body plans: Radial symmetry/asymmetry : usually sessile Bilaterally symmetrical (often motile ) - shape constrained by drag (water) or gravity (on land/flying) Fusiform shape tubular body, tapered, reduces drag (swim faster) Land animals often can run faster than aquatic animals can swim (due to drag) 33.1 - DESCRIBE LIMITS ON ANIMAL SIZE Exoskeletons vs. internal skeletons Diffusion: transfer of nutrients/waste Surface area to volume ratio limits cell size To be big, usually must be multicellular Bioenergetics Endotherms – less work when bigger (next slide) 33.1 - RELATE BIOENERGETICS TO BODY SIZE, LEVELS OF ACTIVITY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT Endotherm – warm blooded (insulated, maintain constant body temp) Smaller the size, harder it is…. more surface area to lose heat, faster metabolism (need more food energy) Ectotherm – cold blooded (environment provides heat) Adaptations that allow small animals to conserve body heat: Torpor (dormancy) = hibernation (winter) estivation (summer) brumation (ectotherm dormancy)
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11/21/2017 2 33.1 ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION Main points that we covered: Describe the various types of body plans that occur in animals Describe limits on animal size and shape Relate bioenergetics to body size, levels of activity, and the environment 33.2 ANIMAL PRIMARY TISSUES Main points: Describe epithelial tissues Discuss the different types of connective tissues in animals Describe three types of muscle tissues Describe nervous tissue 33.2 EPITHELIAL TISSUES LINE THE ORGANS slightly irregular shape, small, central nucleus. Can be stratified - layers (skin) or (b) cervix tissue. Cube shaped, central nucleus Usually in single layers ( SIMPLE ) Simple cuboidal epithelial cells line tubules in the mammalian kidney, where they are involved in filtering the blood. 33.2 EPITHELIAL TISSUES LINE THE ORGANS Taller (column shaped) Single layers A – simple – digestive B – pseudostratified – seems like layers bc nuclei at different heights – respiratory ONLY in BLADDER: Stratified – squish into thicker layers when relaxed, stretch into thinner layer when bladder is full 33.2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES Living cells (fibroblasts and/or specialized ones)
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