29.40organismal.pdf - CHAPTER 39 AND 40 RESPIRATORY AND...

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11/28/2017 1 CHAPTER 39 AND 40: RESPIRATORY AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS Respiratory: 39.1: Systems of Gas Exchange 39.2: Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces 39.3: Breathing 39.4: Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids Circulatory: 40.1: Overview of the Circulatory System 40.2: Components of the Blood 40.3: Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels 39.1 SYSTEMS OF GAS EXCHANGE Main Points: Compare respiratory systems of different animals, explain the function of the respiratory system Describe the passage of air from the outside environment to the lungs (mammal specific) Explain how the lungs are protected from particulate matter 39.1 SYSTEMS OF GAS EXCHANGE: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND OVERALL FUNCTION FUNCTION To provide O 2 and remove CO 2 , necessary for cellular respiration in all cells of the body GENERAL GUIDELINES: Need surface area for air exchange exchanging from environment varies , could be directly from environment to cells or from environment to circulatory system , which circulates to cells 39.1 SYSTEMS OF GAS EXCHANGE: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY Direct diffusion Small, multicellular flatworms- phylum Platyhelminthes, Cnidarian Every cell has to be close to environment Flat Mesoglea 39.1 SYSTEMS OF GAS EXCHANGE: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY Skin as a respiratory organ (“lungs” for earthworm… amphibians have both) Capillaries under skin to exchange to blood Surface must stay wet so gases can dissolve Gills Increase surface area, exchange with blood Aquatic organisms (mollusks, crustaceans, fish) 39.1 SYSTEMS OF GAS EXCHANGE: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY Tracheal systems (insects) Trachea: many chitin supported tubes in a network. Spiracles open to environment. Blood doesn’t transport , as if our lungs had a little tube network
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11/28/2017 2 39.1 SYSTEMS OF GAS EXCHANGE: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY Lungs Terrestrial organisms Reptiles (birds), amphibians, mammals Inhale air into lungs, exchange gases with circulatory system for distribution Discussing the human parts on next few slides (many homologies in other organisms) 39.1 SYSTEMS OF GAS EXCHANGE: : HOW AIR MOVES Inhalation: Nasal Cavity (inside nose) Delivery: Pharynx (shared) Epiglottis flap and glottis Larynx (voice box) Trachea (windpipe) Primary Bronchi (2, RL) Bronchi (smaller) Bronchioles (smaller) Exchange to cardiovascular: Alveoli (at end of microscopic respiratory bronchioles – next slide…. more) 39.1 SYSTEMS OF GAS EXCHANGE: HOW AIR MOVES Bronchioles branch to respiratory bronchioles (microscopic) Alveolar ducts branch Alveolar sacs at ends of ducts Alveoli: site of gas exchange 20-30 alveoli in eac sac, 1 cell thick ~ 300 million per lung ~ 75 m 2 of surface area Capillaries surround alveoli 39.1 SYSTEMS OF GAS EXCHANGE Inhalation in the Nasal Cavity preps air for system: Cavity warms, mucus humidifies Particulate removed throughout passages Dust, dirt, viruses, bacteria (suspended solids) Mucus, cilia throughout Cilia beat mucus out, swallow it in esophagus Coughing – squeezes smooth
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