chapter 28 organismal (1).pdf - BIOLOGY Chapter 28...

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10/31/2017 1 BIOLOGY Chapter 28 INVERTEBRATES PowerPoint Image Slideshow No bones (cranium, vertebrae – so spine) Many aquatic species, probably many undiscovered INVERTEBRATES 28.1: Phylum Porifera (sponges) 28.2: Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish) 28.3: Superphylum Lophotrochozoa (flatworms, rotifers, ribbon worms, mollusks, annelids) NOT ON TEST: COVER NEXT CLASS: 28.4: Superphylum Ecdysozoa (nemotodes and arthropods) 28.5: Superphylum Deuterostomia (echinoderms and chordates – 2 invertebrate chordates, 1 class is the vertebrates) INVERTEBRATES Morphology Parazoan – no true tissue. No symmetry to body. Sessile adults Specialized cells Ex. Collar cells, choanocytes Large focus on water movement (escretion, feeding, gas exchange) 28.1 PORIFERA - SPONGES Simple systems for metabolism , reproduction, motion Digestion Filter feeders (mainly choanocytes filter bacteria from water, pinacocytes consumer larger particles) Phagocytosis – ingest Amoebocytes – transport in some Respiration and excretion Diffusion (O2, CO2, waste) 28.1 PORIFERA - SPONGES Simple systems for metabolism, reproduction, motion Asexual reproduction Fragmentation (breaks) Budding (grows) Gemmules (freshwater species – resist dessication, can lay dormant) Sexual reproduction Hermaphroditic Eject sperm –timing varies Oocyte fertilized in mesohyl Become free swimming larvae , leave out osculum Adults sessile again (observed creeping in labs) 28.1 PORIFERA - SPONGES
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10/31/2017 2 Radial symmetry, diploblastic (2 germ layers) 99% marine species (saltwater) Cnidocytes – cells in mouth and tentacles that can sting prey/predator with toxins Trigger releases coiled nematocyst (stinging organelle) 28.2: PHYLUM CNIDARIA (JELLYFISH) 2 body plans in this phylum: Polyp – stalk Sessile Some only polyp form: (class Anthozoa – sea anemones, corals) 28.2: PHYLUM CNIDARIA (JELLYFISH) Medusa – bell Mobile Dominant phase in jellies, but they also have polyp stage Radial symmetry, diploblastic (2 germ layers – 2 membrane layers form) epidermis (outer – from ectoderm) gastrodermis (inner-from endoderm) Mesoglea (connects 2, no body cavity, nonliving) True tissues, but simple organs/organ systems Nervous tissue Nerve cells – scattered, some grouped in primitive nerve cell clusters Sensory and motor neurons Coordinate: moving tentacles, capture prey, digestion, waste removal) Digestion Gastrovascular cavity – one opening (mouth/anus) Digestion using enzymes (ingest into cavity, digest) Nutrients absorbed by cells lining it, passed on Gases and waste: diffuse to gastrovascular cavity or outside 28.2: PHYLUM CNIDARIA Class Anthozoa (sea anemones, corals) Sessile polyps entire adult life
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