Personality Disorders.ppt - Chapter 12 Personality...

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Chapter 12Personality Disorders
OutlineAn Overview of Personality DisordersAspects of Personality DisordersCluster A Personality DisordersParanoid, schizoid, schizotypalCluster B Personality DisordersAntisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissisticCluster C Personality DisordersAvoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive
Focus QuestionsWhat are the essential features of personality disorders?What are the features of odd or eccentric personality disorders?What are the features of dramatic, emotional and erratic personality disorders?What are the features of anxious or fearful personality disorders?
What are Personality Disorders?
Personality Disorders: An OverviewEnduring, inflexible predispositions Maladaptive, causing distress and/or impairmentHigh comorbidity with other disordersGenerally poor prognosisEgo-syntonic: Unlike other disorders, often feel consistent with one’s identity; patients don’t feel that treatment is necessary10 specific personality disorders organized into 3 clusters
Categorical and Dimensional Models“Kind” vs. “Degree”Personality disorders have traditionally been assigned as all-or-nothing categoriesDSM-5 retained categorical diagnoses but also introduced additional dimensional model of personality disordersDimensional model: Individuals are rated on the degree to which they exhibit various personality traits
Categorical and Dimensional Models, ContinuedCross-cultural research establishes the universal nature of the five dimensionsFive factor model of personality (“Big Five”)Openness to experienceConscientiousnessExtraversionAgreeablenessNeuroticism
DSM-5 Personality DisordersCluster A = Odd or EccentricParanoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disordersCluster B = Dramatic or ErraticAntisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disordersCluster C = Anxious or FearfulAvoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders
DSM-5 Personality Disorders
Personality Disorders: Statistics Prevalence of personality disordersAffects about 10% of the general populationOrigins and course of personality disordersThought to begin in childhood Tend to run a chronic course if untreatedMay transition into a different personality disorder
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Diagnostic Overlap of Personality Disorders[INSERT Table 12.4 HERE]
Cluster A: Paranoid Personality DisorderOverview and clinical featuresPervasive and unjustified mistrust and suspicionFew meaningful relationships, sensitive to criticismPoor quality of life
Cluster A: Paranoid Personality Disorder CausesCausesNot well understoodMay involve early learning that people and the world are dangerous or deceptiveCultural factors: more often found in people with experiences that lead to mistrust of otherPrisonersRefugees People with hearing impairments Older adults

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