Chapter 10: A Democratic Revolution(1820-1844)TopicNotes. The Rise of Popular Politics, 1820–1829A. The Decline of the Notables and the Rise of Parties1.Expansion of the franchise was the most dramatic expression of the democratic revolution; beginning in the late 1810s, many states revised their constitutions to give the franchise to nearly every whitemale farmer and wage earner.2.In America’s traditional agricultural society, wealthy notables dominated the political system and managed local elections by building up supporting factions.3.Smallholding farmers and ambitious laborers in the Midwest and Southwest launched the first challenges to the traditional political order; the constitutions of new states prescribed a broad male franchise and voters usually elected middling men to local and state offices.4.To deter migration to the western states, the elites in most eastern legislatures grudgingly accepted a broader franchise for their states.5.By the mid-1820s only a few states—North Carolina, Virginia, Rhode Island— required the ownership of freehold property for voting.6.Between 1818 and 1821, some eastern states reapportioned legislatures on the basis of population and instituted more democratic forms of local government.7.Americans began to turn to government in order to advance business, religious, and cultural causes.8.As the power of the notables declined, the political party emerged asthe organizing force in the American system of government.9.Parties were political machines that gathered the diverse agenda of social and economic groups into a coherent legislative program.10.Between 1817 and 1821, Martin Van Buren created the first statewide political machine, and he later organized the first nationwide political party, the Jacksonian Democrats.11.Keys to Van Buren’s political success were his systematic use of party newspapers to promote a platform and drum up the vote and his use of patronage; he and his party made six thousand political appointments in New York. Van Buren then used the spoils system to award public jobs to political supporters after an electoral victory.12.Van Buren also insisted on party discipline and required state legislators to follow the dictates of a party caucus, or meeting.B. The Election of 18241.With the democratization of politics, the aristocratic Federalist Partyvirtually disappeared, and the Republicans broke up into competing factions.2.The election of 1824 had five candidates who all called themselves Republicans: John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, William H. Crawford, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson.3.Congress selected William Crawford as the official candidate, yet
the other candidates refused to accept the selection and sought support among ordinary voters.