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PoliSci238StuGuiJA

PoliSci238StuGuiJA - Study Guide Poli 238 Fall 2007 Ask...

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Study Guide – Poli 238 Fall 2007 Ask yourself, what is the role of X in Latin America? You want to think of examples/illustrations and you need to be able to explain the importance/relevance of each. You might think about answering the what, why, when, where, who, and who cares? 1. Environmental Concerns/Urbanization a. What : Environmental Concerns in Latin America include deforestation, degradation of arable lands, and urban environmental pollution (Hillman). Deforestation is the biggest environmental issue. The loss of biological diversity is also critical, as well as soil erosion, fertility decline, and air pollution. Other problems include flooding and landslides. Urbanization is defined as the migration of poor into urban areas, creating urban slums (squatter settlements). These settlers fall subject to disease and other health problems. b. Why i. Deforestation and other environmental concerns often occur because pf the expansion of commercial agricultural production, mineral and petroleum extraction and the increase in consumer demand in the “affluent global North,” inequitable domestic and economic and social systems, and moderate high rates of population growth. The spread of chemical farming has also caused many of these environmental problems. ii. Urbanization has occurred as a result of environmental issues, urban industrialization, as well as the standards of living in rural areas as they fall far behind those of urban areas. Agricultural strategies favoring exports and land monopolies that date back to the colonial period were instrumental in forcing glandless people to leave the countryside form the early twentieth century on. Modern industrialization of agriculture dispossessed large number s of peasant farmers who often migrated to urban areas in search of employment. Often they end up working in flood zones or trash heaps that make them subject to disease and illnesses because the government does not do a good job of environmental regulation. c. When: 1930s-Now (Peaked between 1950s-1980s) d. Where : Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Argentina, Amazon Basin… e. Who : Everyone is affected by these problems, especially the poor. The people who live in the slums are extremely vulnerable to natural disasters, and they live in areas with little to no waste disposal system. The government is directly involved as they are in charge of environmental regulation. f. Significance: Environmental problems lead to problems for all of these people: the poor in Latin America, the United States (we often use the land and contribute to the environmental problems in Latin America!), the rich (they blame the poor for all the problems).
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2. ISI a. What : Import Substitution Industrialization is when a country decides to produce products previously imported in order to produce jobs and reduce dependence on other countries. ISI policies include: i. Subsidies and tax incentives ii. Tariffs and import quotas iii. Price controls (example: milk in the National market can’t go above $1.00) iv. Overvalued exchange rates
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