PoliticalScience238Notes[1]

PoliticalScience238Notes[1] - POLITICAL SCIENCE 238 Latin...

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POLITICAL SCIENCE 238 8/24/2007 Latin American Agribusiness = Subsistence Farming -money taking away from small farmers African Slave Trade -10,000,000 slaves brought to Latin America Exploitation of Natural Resources -due to overpopulation -Deforestation -Agricultural Turmoil Key Exports -metal, corn, oil, bananas, sugar Venezuela/Colombia are responsible for most of the oil Latin American originally specialized in one product but after several economic shortcomings, they began to diversify. Emigration: going out Immigration: comin in Remittance: many sent to Latin America from Latin Americans who settled in the US. El Salvadoreans receive most of the remittances. 8/27/2007 1492: Columbus shows up 1521: entire empire is controlled by Spaniards (led by Cortez) Aztec Empire (why they lost?) -big disparity in centralized hierarchical -alienated poor people -Religion -existing religion prophesized comback of great figure -Cortez appeared on a horse…Aztecs were in awe Disease -they were very susceptible to disease Wheels
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Aztecs had no wheels and they were slow to find inventions that the rest of civilization was using Horses/Dogs -Both were new to the Aztecs and frightened them The Spanish GOD, GOLD, GLORY -what Cortez was in search of -economics/profit trumped religion -introduces chickens/eggs Monarchy -> Viceroys(Administration) ->Criollows (no political power) ->Church Viceroys: were given generals to watch them and this caused inefficiency. EXPLANATION AS TO WHY LATIN AMERICA IS CURRENTLY UNSTABLE Mother country controls all trade and taxes. -Napoleon invades France -By 1808, the Independence Period begins Tupac Amaru revolution (in Peru) -Indians rebel and start killing whites Cominores (Colombia0 -bloodless battle Hatian Revolution -Slave Revolt -Formed 1 st African-Latina Republic US gains Independence from Britain Tupas Amaru/Hatian Revolution: inspires fear…”this is what a revolution can look like…” Bolivar: wanted to unite all of Latin America Independence leads to: NO DEMOCRACY
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STRONG CENTRAL LEADER (WEAK INSTITUTIONS) NO NATIONALISTIC PRIDE -LACK OF UNITY -LOTS OF CIVIL WAR Personalism: politics became all about personality (ie. Charisma and resiliency) 8/29/2007 1940 Import Substitute Industrialization -instead of being a neccesity it became more of a policy -contradicts the concept of comparative advantage “Dependency Theory”: In the center are the superpower and strong countries and on the periphery are countries whose well being depend on what they export to the strong countries… -Raul Prebisch (Dependency Theory and Export Pessimism) Cost: primary products are less than finished goods -benefit goes to manufacturers ISI Policies: Trying to creat national industry Subsidize land Subsidize energy Subsidize food Results from ISS: Tariffs Price Controls (wont let prices get too high) The state runs key industries Overvalue Exchange Rate -creates a disincentive to export (profit less) -makes imports cheaper (such as food, machines, technology) Low Interst Loans -Low Quality/High Prices Inflation Industrialization
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Result in the Rise of Populism
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