Unit 3 - DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS.docx - 35 KIN 332 RESEARCH DESIGN AND STATISTICS IN KINESIOLOGY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS

# Unit 3 - DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS.docx - 35 KIN 332 RESEARCH...

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35 KIN 332 - RESEARCH DESIGN AND STATISTICS IN KINESIOLOGY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS Statistical notation Frequency – counting the number of times a score occurs Symbol = f Distribution – any organized set of data (i.e., scores) Is there any unique order or pattern to the scores? N = total number of scores Number of research participants in a study 4 ways to organize data: A) Simple frequency B) Relative frequency C) Cumulative frequency D) Percentile Counting how many times a particular score occurs Rules for making a frequency table Make score column and then make a frequency column Raw scores 14 14 13 15 11 15 13 10 12 13 14 13 14 15 17 14 14 15
36 Frequency table Order scores from high to low Score f 17 1 16 0 15 4 14 6 13 4 12 1 11 1 10 1
37 Graphing simple frequency distributions (PUT GRAPH TITLE UNDER GRAPH ) Bar graph Used for nominal or ordinal data Each bar centred over each score Bars do not touch 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SCORE f
38 Histogram This is a bar graph where the bars touch each other Used for a small number of scores, interval or ratio data Indicates there are no gaps in the X variable (continuous data) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% Frequency Cumulative % SCORE f
39 Polygon Use with a large number of interval or ratio scores Continuous variable 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SCORE f Relative frequency is the proportion of N that is made up by a score’s simple frequency. Fraction of the total N Grouping relative frequency distribution ..... same rules as simple frequency. Cumulative frequency Is the frequency of all scores at or below a particular score. Percentile Is the percent of all scores in the data at or below a particular score.
40 Relative frequency
41 CENTRAL TENDENCY Calculating “ .... one number that summarizes everyone’s score.” Indication of the “location” of one person’s score relative to the sample (or population). Measure of central tendency .... is a score that summarizes the location of a distribution on a variable”. Eliminates the need to examine every single score.