35KIN 332 - RESEARCH DESIGN AND STATISTICS IN KINESIOLOGYDESCRIPTIVE STATISTICSFREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONSStatistical notationFrequency – counting the number of times a score occurs•Symbol = fDistribution – any organized set of data (i.e., scores)•Is there any unique order or pattern to the scores?N = total number of scores•Number of research participants in a study4 ways to organize data:A) Simple frequencyB) Relative frequencyC) Cumulative frequencyD) Percentile•Counting how many times a particular score occursRules for making a frequency table •Make score column and then make a frequency columnRaw scores141413151115131012131413141517141415
36•Frequency tableOrder scores from high to lowScore f 17 1 16 0 15 4 14 6 13 4 12 1 11 1 10 1
37Graphing simple frequency distributions (PUT GRAPH TITLE UNDER GRAPH)Bar graph•Used for nominal or ordinal data•Each bar centred over each score•Bars do not touch101112131415161701234567SCOREf
38Histogram•This is a bar graph where the bars touch each other•Used for a small number of scores, interval or ratio data•Indicates there are no gaps in the X variable (continuous data)101112131415161701234560.00%20.00%40.00%60.00%80.00%100.00%120.00%FrequencyCumulative %SCOREf
39Polygon•Use with a large number of interval or ratio scores•Continuous variable101112131415161701234567SCOREfRelative frequency is the proportion of N that is made up by a score’s simple frequency.•Fraction of the total N•Grouping relative frequency distribution.....same rules as simple frequency.Cumulative frequency•Is the frequency of all scores at or below a particular score.Percentile•Is the percent of all scores in the data at or below a particular score.
41CENTRAL TENDENCY•Calculating “....one number that summarizes everyone’s score.” •Indication of the “location” of one person’s score relative to the sample (or population).Measure of central tendency•“....is a score that summarizes the location of a distribution on a variable”.•Eliminates the need to examine every single score.