Dualism and Thinking Things

Dualism and Thinking Things - Phi 340 Dualism and Thinking...

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Phi 340 03-27-07 Dualism and Thinking Things A very large percentage  of the people with  whom  I've discussed  these issues - over 80% -  believe that they have a non-physical mind  in addition  to having  a body. smaller percentage believe that living things have a vital essence, in addition  to their  physical constitution. So many  are dualists about  both living and  thinking  things. 3 Sources for Dualistic Intuitions -1 st First, dualism  certainly has a powerful religious motivation. Many  religions  have as part of their central doctrines the belief that people are both physical and   spiritual beings, with  one part for each of those two jobs.  -And  dualists are not kidding  about  the mind's  being nonphysical: it's not a  physical object, it's not a physical process, and  it's not a gaseous substance or  fluid or energy field. -if something  is nonphysical, it takes up  no space. -*It is possible to be an atheist and a dualist -Descartes gives an accurate argument for dualism -Minds are evident in a classically self evident way - Descartes's Argument for Distinctness of Mind and Body (1) M is I(2) B is  not I (3)  Therefore , M is not identical to B.(4) Anything  that's I is not P (5)  Therefore , M is not P -Descartes explains that our minds are sometimes knowable in a classically self evident way; it is evident that our minds can be wrong sometimes so our minds aren't always infallible. -Bodies are never classically self evident -anything  that's complex and  physical is always capable of  malfunction  and  hence not infallible about any, no less all, of its  current states. From this and  (3), the conclusion  (5) does follow and   says that minds  are not both complex and  physical.  -2 nd  Source -"Leibniz's Law" -For any x and  any y, and  any property  F: if x has property  F and  y  does not have property  F, then x is not identical to y. -3 rd Source- The third  source for dualism  is found  in the ways we commonly   describe people, both ourselves and  others, for many  truths  about  ourselves and   other people are most straightforwardly  interpreted  on a dualistic model and  thus  provides  evidence for dualism. The dualistic meaning-rule : - In such 'opposites' sentences, "body" refers to the person's (physical) body  and   "mind" refers to the person's (non-physical) mind Suppose, for example, that someone proposes this meaning-rule in place of the dualistic one: In such 'opposites' sentences, "body" refers to the person's physical aspect and "mind" refers to the person's mental aspect . The trouble with this proposal is not that it's false
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Dualism and Thinking Things - Phi 340 Dualism and Thinking...

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