Anatomy and Physiology I - exam I study guide.docx -...

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Anatomy and Physiology I – Exam I Study Guide1.There are 5 subdivisions in anatomy; name all 5 and name the approach(es) within in each one2.Explain the principle of complimentary3.Go through an example of the organizational plan or name all levels or organization in order4.List the necessary life functions (hint: there are 8)5.Explain the interrelationships between organ systems6.Briefly list the homeostatic control mechanisms in order and explain what each player does7.Explain correlations in positive and negative feedback loops8.Give three examples of negative feedback and two examples of positive feedback9.What is homeostatic imbalance and how does it arise?10.What are the cascade of events in uncontrolled bleeding? (hemorrhagic shock)11.For the following scenarios: label the type of feedback, stimulus, control center, effector and responsea.An athlete travels to the Colorado Rockies to train for an upcoming marathon.He runs 15 miles everyother day and while breathing O2 deficient air.His blood O2 levels become lowered as a result.Hiskidney cells sense the reduction in O2 and secrete a hormone, erythropoietin into the blood stream.Thehormone circulates to the bone marrow where it acts on stem cells.The stem cells differentiate intomature red blood cells which can carry additional oxygen.b.You’ve just stepped on a piece of glass. Pain receptors in the skin of your foot send a signal to your spinalcord.Your spinal cord activates the muscles needed to lift your foot via spinal nerves.c.Exposure to a hot environment causes sweating.Sweating is the major method the body uses to cooldown. As the temperature rises, the amount of sweat produced increases.d.There are chemoreceptors adjacent to the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata of the brain thatare sensitive to the carbon dioxide content of the blood. Carbon dioxide concentration is measured as apartial pressure of the gas in blood. Normal PCO2 is 40 mm Hg. When PCO2 rises the respiratory centeris stimulated and the breathing rate increases. Increasing the respiratory rate results in increasedremoval of carbon dioxide.e.Normally platelets, blood cells that function in blood clot formation, do not stick to blood vessel walls.However in response to a tear or damage to the vessel wall platelets will adhere to the vessel wall at thesite of damage.The platelets that first stick to the wall release chemicals that attract other platelets.Those platelets then adhere to the site and release chemicals that attract even more platelets.

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Term
Fall
Professor
DONNA CARR

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