52.docx - 5.4 Chi-Square Test of Goodness of Fit and Independence The X2(chi-square distribution is used to test(1 if observed frequencies differ

52.docx - 5.4 Chi-Square Test of Goodness of Fit and...

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5.4 Chi-Square Test of Goodness of Fit and Independence The X 2 (chi-square) distribution is used to test (1) if observed frequencies differ “significantly” from expected frequencies when more than two outcomes are possible; (2) if the sample distribution is binomial, normal, or other; and (3) if two variables are independent or not. encies ectedfrequ f f f e e exp f s frequencie observed f Where (5.4) e 0 2 0 2 If the calculated X 2 is greater than the tabular value of X 2 at the specified level of significance and degrees of freedom (from App.6), the null hypothesis, H 0 , is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis, H
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