culture.docx - It has been widely acknowledged that...

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It has been widely acknowledged that organisational culture is significant in organisational behaviour andperformance (Trice and Beyer 1993; Deal and Kennedy 2000; Peters and Waterman 2004; Schein 2004).Moreover Gamage (2006) claims that ”any leader or manager who needs to improve the organisationaleffectiveness of his or her institution should be able to diagnose the organisational culture”.The idea of organisational culture itself implies strong, shared values that are not easily altered. This canbe illustrated by Schein’s (2004) interpretation of levels of culture. He argues that every culture can beanalysed at different levels where the term level ”refers to the degree to which a cultural phenomenon isvisible to the observer” On the first level there are artefacts that include all the phenomena that can beseen, heard or felt when a member enters an unfamiliar culture. On the second level we can encounterespoused values expressed thorough strategies, goals and philosophies. If these values are perceived‘good’ they gradually start to transform into shared assumptions that exist at the third level. Their mainfeature is that they are taken-for-granted to such an extent that ”we neither confront nor debate and henceare extremely difficult to change”. If we then want to understand or study culture we have to decipherthese complex patterns and their plurality of surface levels. At this point we would like to refer to thenotion of stability and hence of strong organisational cultures expressed through shared values,commonly renowned heroes, programmed rites and rituals and effective cultural networks – the means ofcommunication (Deal and Kennedy 2000).Some authors (i.e. Kotter and Heskett 1992; Beaumont 1996; Morgan 1997) express concern about apositive correlation between organisational success and strong organisational culture.So we can open the question about the relationship between the role of communication structure,interpersonal relationships, employee motivation, and stimulation as part of organizational culture ofany organization.Organizational culture represents an ideology of the organization as well as the forms of its manifestation.The ideology of the organization includes beliefs, values and norms. It is manifested through symbols,language, narration and other activities (Triece and Beyer, 1993). Organizational culture is the set ofshared philosophies, assumptions, values, expectations, attitudes and norms which bind an organizationtogether. It helps a company to implement its strategies effectively (Wilkins and Ouchi, 1983).Organizational culture has been defined as patterns of shared values and beliefs over time which producesbehavioral norms that are adopted in solving problems (Deal and Kennedy, 1982; Schein, 1983; Morgan,1998). Schein (1985) has also noted that organizational culture is a body of solutions to problems whichhave worked consistently and are therefore taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think

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Term
Fall
Professor
Bandy,K

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