hales.docx - Journal of Management Studies 23:1 January...

This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 39 pages.

We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Business Analytics: Data Analysis & Decision Making
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 14 / Exercise 2
Business Analytics: Data Analysis & Decision Making
Albright/Winston
Expert Verified
Journal of Management Studies 23:1 January 1986 0022-2380 $3.50 WHAT DO MANAGERS DO? A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE COLIN p. HALES Department of Management Studies for Tourism and Hotel Industries, University of Surrey INTRODUCTION IN this article, I consider the extent to which the question 'What do managers do?' has been satisfactorily answered by published empirical studies of mana gerial work and behaviour. Two aspects of this enterprise require justification: the pertinence of the question posed and the need for another review of the evidence. Certainly, the question 'What do managers do?' has an air of naivete, insolence, even redundancy about it. Yet it is a question which is begged by many management-related issues. Arguments that the quality of manage ment is decisive in both organizational and national economic performance presuppose that the exclusively 'managerial' contribution to that performance is both tangible and identifiable. Claims for managerial authority invariably rest not upon de facto status and power, but upon an implicit '.job of managing' for which authority is the necessary resource. The vast and growing industry of management education, training and development presumably rests upon a set of ideas about what managers do and, hence, what managers are being educated, trained and developed for. Finally, nowhere is the question of what managers do more insistently begged than in that substantial portion of the literature on management which is concerned with 'effective' management (or managerial effectiveness). Indeed 'effective management' has ceased to be a purely contingent pairing of adjective and noun and has become a self evident object whose causes and concomitants may be investigated unambiguously. In contrast, I contend that the term 'effective management' is a second-order normative statement which presupposes the existence of relatively reliable answers to first-order empirical questions. For me, 'effectiveness' denotes the extent to which what managers actually do matches what they are supposed to do. This is recognized in a number of definitions of 'managerial effectiveness' offered in the literature, despite their superficial differer.cesYl A central implication of this, however, is less frequently recognized: that the extent of this congruence can only be judged once the two sides of the 'effectiveness equation' are known Address for reprints: Dr. C. P. Hales, Department of Management Studies for Tourism and Hotel Industries, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH.
We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Business Analytics: Data Analysis & Decision Making
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 14 / Exercise 2
Business Analytics: Data Analysis & Decision Making
Albright/Winston
Expert Verified
90 COLIN P. HALES empirically. It is necessary, therefore, to have reliable evidence on what managers do, in both senses of the term 'do'. Some of the more celebrated writings on effective management are singularly reticent about specifying what effective managers are effective at l 2 l.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture